Indian Polity

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Indian Polity| Indian Constitution, Indian Union and Territory

Polity is defined as an organized society, the way such societies function and the way it is governed. A society can be governed by a single ruler who follows a monarchy system. It can be governed by a group of People know as aristocracy. The people of Society can elect a government which will control the provinces, the system is known as democracy. There are different ways in which democracy can be executed in the society.

Indian polity teaches us how democracy was developed and how it is practiced in our country. Our Constitution is the document which holds the country united in a democratic framework. The constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function. The constitution of India is the lengthiest written constitution of world. The Indian constitution was made by constituent assembly formed in1946. The constitution was implemented on 26th January 1950. The Indian Constitution is unique in its contents and spirit. Though borrowed from almost every previously written constitution of the world, the constitution of India has several salient features that distinguish it from the constitutions of other countries. When framed, Constitution consisted of 395 Articles (divided into 22 Parts) and 8 Schedules Presently (2016), it consists of a Preamble, about 465 Articles (divided into 25 Parts) and 12 Schedules. Framing of constitution took place in difficult situation. The country was going through pain of partition. There was challenge of uniting 545 princely states in Union of India. Though, there was advantage of freedom struggle which derived ideas for constitution. For example in 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. Historical background of British India also had influence. So, we will discuss historical background of constitution design first and them we will move toward framing of constitution.

Institutions play an important role in maintaining the democratic system. There are various checks and measures among institutions defined in our constitution regarding certain decision making. The various institutions play their respective roles in various decision making. The legislatures which is elected representative make laws under constitutional framework, Executive executes government policies and Judiciary keep check on other institutions with its constitutional framework. At time of Election, the autonomous election commission of India ensures free and fair electoral completion. In Indian polity, we will study about these institutions and power executed by them.

Historical Background

  -Background of the Indian Constitution

Regulating Act of 1773

Pitt’s India of 1784

Charter Act of 1793

Charter Act of 1813

Charter Act of 1833

Charter Act of 1853

Government Act of 1858

-Indian Councils Act of 1861

-Indian Councils Act of 1892

-Morley-Minto reforms and the Indian Councils Act 1909

-Montagu Chelmsford Report and the Government of India Act 1919

-The Simon Commission

Government of India Act 1935

-Indian Independence Act 1947

 Making of the Constitution

-Demand for a constituent assembly

-Evolution of the Constituent Assembly

-Nehru Report: A blue print of the Indian Constitution

-Cripps Mission 1942

-Cabinet Delegation and the Wavell plan 1945

-Cabinet Mission Plan 1946

-Mountbatten Plan of June 1947

-Indian Independence Act July 1947

-Passing of the Constitution

-Working of the Constituent Assembly

-Objectives Resolution

-Changes by the Independent Act

-Committees of the Constituent Assembly

-Enactment and Enforcement of the Constitution

-Criticism of the Constitution

Philosophy of the constitution

-The Preamble

-Text and ingredients of the Preamble

-Keywords in the Preamble

-Sovereign

-Socialist

-Secular

-Democratic

-Republic

-Justice

-Liberty

-Equality

-Fraternity

-Significance of the Preamble

-Preamble as part of the Constitution

-Amenability of the Preamble

Salient features of our Constitution

-Introduction

-Lengthiest written Constitution

-Drawn from the various sources

-Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility

-Parliamentary form of Government

-Fundamental Rights

-Fundamental Duties

-Directive Principals of state policy

-A Secular State

-Universal Adult Franchise

-Independent Judiciary

-Single Citizenship

-Emergency Powers

-Special provisions for minorities

-Three-tier Government

-Criticism of the Constitution

Nature of the Federal System

– Nature of Federal System

-Provisions for a Federal Union

-Provisions for Amendment

-Amendment Method

-Amendment Procedure

-Provisions for Distribution of Powers

-Legislative Powers

-Administrative Powers

-Financial Powers

-Emergency Provisions

-Provision for Citizenship

-Provision for Settlement of Disputes

Federalism in India

-The Development of Indian Federalism

-Nature of the Indian Federal System: A Matter of Controversy

-Federal Features of the Indian Constitution: The Constitution is Federal in Form

-Unitary Features ofthe Indian Constitution: A Strong Central Government

-Federation in India

-The Future of the Federal System: Strong Trend centralisation

-Main factors that explain the Trend of Centralisation

-Proposed Indian Federation

-A Peculiar Federation

-Deviations from Federal Pattern

-Federalism: Theory and Practice in India

-Criticism of Indian Federal System

-Reasons for Adopting Federal Structure

-Impact of Party System on Federalism exaggerated

-Federalism as a Concept

-Conception of Federalism

-Federalism Defined

-Constitutional Significance of Federalism

-The Federal Polity and Constitutional Construction

-Federal Nature of the Constitution

-A Definition of Federation

-Sovereignty and Federalism

-Parliamentary Sovereignty and Federalism

-Supremacy of the Constitution and the Court

 

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