Indian Polity| Indian Constitution, Indian Union and Territory
Polity is defined as an organized society, the way such societies function and the way it is governed. A society can be governed by a single ruler who follows a monarchy system. It can be governed by a group of People know as aristocracy. The people of Society can elect a government which will control the provinces, the system is known as democracy. There are different ways in which democracy can be executed in the society.
Indian polity teaches us how democracy was developed and how it is practiced in our country. Our Constitution is the document which holds the country united in a democratic framework. The constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function. The constitution of India is the lengthiest written constitution of world. The Indian constitution was made by constituent assembly formed in1946. The constitution was implemented on 26th January 1950.
Topics included in Indian Polity
The Indian Constitution is unique in its contents and spirit. Though borrowed from almost every previously written constitution of the world, the constitution of India has several salient features that distinguish it from the constitutions of other countries. When framed, Constitution consisted of 395 Articles (divided into 22 Parts) and 8 Schedules Presently (2016), it consists of a Preamble, about 465 Articles (divided into 25 Parts) and 12 Schedules. Framing of constitution took place in difficult situation. The country was going through pain of partition. There was challenge of uniting 545 princely states in Union of India. Though, there was advantage of freedom struggle which derived ideas for constitution. For example in 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. Historical background of British India also had influence. So, we will discuss historical background of constitution design first and them we will move toward framing of constitution.
Institutions play an important role in maintaining the democratic system. There are various checks and measures among institutions defined in our constitution regarding certain decision making. The various institutions play their respective roles in various decision making. The legislatures which is elected representative make laws under constitutional framework, Executive executes government policies and Judiciary keep check on other institutions with its constitutional framework. At time of Election, the autonomous election commission of India ensures free and fair electoral completion. In Indian polity, we will study about these institutions and power executed by them.