Size and Location of India| Boundaries, Neigbours of India and Political Divisions of India
India lies entirely on the Indian Plate in the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.
• It lies in the northern and eastern hemispheres of the globe between 8° 4′ N and 37°6′ N latitudes and 68°7′ E and 97°25′E longitudes.
• India’s North-south extent is from Indira Col in Kashmir to Kanniyakumari (Cape Comorin) is 3,214 km.
• India’s East-west width is from the Rann of Kachachh to Arunachal Pradesh is 2,933 km.
• The southernmost point of the country is Indira Point (formerly known as Pygmalion Point) is located at 6° 45′ N latitude.
• The tropic of cancer (23 1/2°) passes through the middle part of India and crosses the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
• South of about 22° north latitude, the country tapers off over 800 km into the Indian Ocean as a peninsula.
• The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland is about 30°.
• The time along the Standard Meridian (82°30′ E) passing through Mirzapur in UP is taken as the Indian Standard Time for whole country.
• India’s land frontier is 15,200 km and coast line is 7516.6 km (including Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep).
• India has an area of 32,87,263 sq km which make it the seventh largest country of the world. This accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total surface area of the world and roughly 0.57% of the area of the earth. After Russia, China, Canada, USA, Brazil and Australia, India is the seventh largest country of the world.
• According to population, India is the second largest country in the world after China. Its total population is more than the combined population of USA, Russia, Australia, Canada and Japan.
• In the north and northwest, India is bounded by Himalayan mountains.
• In the south it is bounded by Indian ocean, while in the south-west by Arabian sea and in the South-East by Bay of Bengal. The Andman Nicobar island is situated in the Bay of Bengal while Lakshadweep lies in the Arabian Sea.
• Its western borders with Pakistan lie in the Punjab Plain and the Thar Desert.
• In the far northeast, the Patkai hills, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Myanmar (Burma) while the borders of Bangladesh is stated by the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the Khasi hills and Mizo Hills.
• India’s neighbours:
→ Northwest: Pakistan and Afghanistan
→ North: China, Nepal, Bhutan
→ East: Myanmar and Bangladesh
→ South: Sri Lanka and Maldives
• Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar
• Maldives Islands are situated to the south of the Lakshadweep Islands.
• The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) measured from the appropriate baseline.
Location and size of of the Indian Sub Continent
• Mainland of the Indian subcontinent includes India, Pakistan Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
• Total area of the Indian subcontinent is 44.9 lakh sq. km in which:
→ India – 32,87,263 sq. km
→ Pakistan – 7,96,095 sq. km
→ Bangladesh – 1,48,393 sq. km.
→ Nepal – 1,47,181 sq km.
→ Bhutan – 46,500 sq. km.
→ Sri Lanka – 65,610 sq. km.
Political Divisions of India
• India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories.
• Apart from Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Haryana and Delhi all the states in the country have one or more international borders or a coastline. These states are considered as frontline States.
• India’s longest border is with Bangladesh and the shortest border is with Afghanistan.
States having Common Frontiers with Neighbouring Countries
|Pakistan||Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat|
|Afghanistan||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Nepal||Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim|
|Bhutan||Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh|
|China||Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh|
|Myanmar||Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram|
|Bangladesh||West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam, Tripura and Mizoram|