In the aftermath of the First Mysore War, it seemed that good relations would continue between Mysore and East India Company, but soon these hopes were dashed. Between 1780 and 1784, the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore fought the Second Anglo-Mysore War. In this article, you can gain a better understanding of the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) which will be helpful when preparing for the UPSC IAS and other competitive exams.
Causes of Second Anglo Mysore War
As far as Hyder Ali was concerned, in 1771 he was invaded by the Marathas. The English Company was supposed to assist Hyder Ali under the treaty, but did not do so. Hyder Ali had to face the Marathas alone and was defeated by them. Hyder Ali was very annoyed by this, but he tolerated it and didn’t upset his friendly relations with the Company. The Bombay Government of East India failed to provide him with necessary war material during the war against the Marathas, which upset him greatly. In addition, he was annoyed by the English because they captured Mahe, which was under his possession. The English also captured Guntur to Hyder Ali’s dismay. In light of this defeat and violation of treaty, he was on the lookout for opportunities to avenge it.
A resentment was also felt by the Nizam towards the English. Under the treaty, the Company was to pay Rs. 7 lakhs annually to the Nizarn but it did not. Also, Nizam was annoyed with the English taking Guntur district from Basalat Jang, a relative of his. They also assisted the Nawab of Karnataka in capturing Tanjore, which Nizam disapproved of. Marathas were also frustrated with the English because the Company interfered unnecessarily in internal matter.
As a result of these annoyances, the three combined to fight against the English Company, and the strategy devised was three prolonged attacks on the English. Berar and Madhya Pradesh would be attacked by the Marathas, Northern Circars would be attacked by Nizarn, and Madras and its neighboring territories would be attacked by Hyder Ali.
France had signed a treaty of friendship with America after the American War of Independence (1778), so Britain declared war against it. A similar scenario occurred when Spain reached a deal with America and was dragged into the war against England (1779), but England remained isolated. The Nizam and Marathas came together in India, supported by the French, which worsened the situation. In an attempt to take advantage of England’s difficulties, Haider Ali marched on Karnataka.
Events of Second Anglo Mysore War
In 1780, when Hyder Ali invaded Kamataka with an army of 83,000 soldiers and 100 cannons, the war broke out. In addition, he defeated English armies under Colonel Baillie and captured Arcot. A sudden attack by Haider badly wounded Colonel Baillie, who was to join Hector Munro’s force. This forced Munro to relocate Madras. Haider captured Arcot (1780).
At this point, Lord Warren Hastings, the Company Governor General, acted diplomatically and tried to break the confederacy that they believed threatened their Indian supremacy. After handing back Guntur to the Nizam of Hyderabad, they satisfied him. The point of irritation was removed, and he quietly resigned from the confederacy. They also succeeded in convincing the Marathas to withdraw their support from Hyder Ali. This left Hyder Ali all alone.
While he continued fighting alone, Hyder Ali was defeated by the English armies under Sir Eyre Coote in 1781 at Porto Novo. At Tanjore, his son, Tipu Sultan, defeated the English. By the end of 1782, Hyder Ali died on December 7, 1782 after capturing Cuddalore and Trincomali, which were under English control.
Haider’s death due to cancer in 1782, the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783) at the end of the American War of Independence, and Mangalore’s protracted siege enabled the English to attack Tipu. Colonel Lang captured Karur and Dindigul, while Colonel Fullerton captured Palghat and Coimbatore.
Due to financial difficulties, the Governor of Madras recalled the English forces from Srirangapatnam, the capital of Mysore. At this point, both sides were eager to sign a treaty. It was not only the English who faced serious financial problems that made Tipu Sultan feel all alone, but also exhausted after fighting alone. As a result, they reached a treaty called the Treaty of Mangalore.
Result of the Second Anglo Mysore War
On March 7, 1784, the treaty was signed by both parties. The treaty agreed that both parties would return conquered territories and prisoners of war.
At the time of the Treaty of Mangalore, it was evident that both sides would soon contest for supremacy again and the present treaty was not a permanent arrangement but only a temporary respite for the parties to have a new war in the future. As a result, both parties understood that it was only a temporary phase.