Chapter 1 Resources and Development Class 10 Geography NCERT Notes will be helpful for students who want to revise the chapters before their exams. CBSE Class 10 Social Science NCERT notes will be a valuable resource for students who want to make sure they understand the material covered in class.
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Chapter 1 Resources and Development Class 10 Geography NCERT Notes
Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
Nature, technology and institutions are interdependent on one another. Human play key role in this relationship as they interact with nature through the help of technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. Thus, Human beings themselves are essential components of resources.
Resources can be classified in various ways
- On the basis of origin as biotic and abiotic.
- On the basis of exhaustibility as renewable and non-renewable.
- On the basis of ownership as individual, community, national and international.
- On the basis of status of development as potential, developed, stock and reserves.
On the basis of origin
Biotic Resources are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources consists of all those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals etc.
One the basis of exhaustibility
Renewable resources are those resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.
Non-Renewable Resources are those resources once consumed cannot be replaced are known as non-renewable resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. For example: Oil, Coal etc.
On the basis of ownership
Individual Resources are those resources owned privately by individuals are called Individual resources. For example: Plot, houses etc. owned by a person.
Community Owned Resources are resources which are accessible to all the members of the community. For example: Public parks, picnic spots owned by a community.
National Resources are those resources which come under nation are known as National Resources. Technically, all the resources belong to the nation.
International Resources are those resources lying beyond 200 kms of Exclusive Economic Zone in the oceans are called International Resources. No one can use these resources without the permission of international institutions.
One the basis of status of development
Potential Resources are those resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example: the regions Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy.
Developed Resources are those resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation.
Stock are those resources that have been surveyed, but cannot be used due a lack of technology. For example: water is a compound of two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy but we don’t have technical know-how to use them.
Reserves are those resources that have been surveyed and we can use them with present technology but their use has not been started are known as Reserves. For example: the water in the dams, forests etc.
Development of resources
It means the process of the utilisation of resources. Earlier it was believed that resources are free gifts of nature so we exploited this without any care. This created various major problems such as
Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
Resources get accumulated in the hands of few people which divided the human society into poor and rich. It led to global ecological crisis such as global warming, depletion of ozone layer, environmental pollution and land degradation.
Resources planning is a strategy for judicious use of resources which is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Sustainable existence is a component of sustainable development. Sustainable development is an economic development that should take place without damaging the environment, and also the development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations or upcoming generations.
Resource planning is a complex process which involves:
- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
- Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
- Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
In India, there is vast diversity in the availability of resources. There are some region which can be considered self sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.
Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources. The cold desert of Ladakh has very rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals. Thus, we need balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels.
After Independence, India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right from the First Five Year Plan.
Conservation of Resources
As the resources are vital for development and over-utilization and irrational consumption of resources creates socio-economic and environmental problems. Thus, it is necessary to conserve resources.
There are various measures taken to conserve resources:
- At the international level, the Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in a more systematic way in 1968.
- Subsequently, in 1974, Gandhian philosophy was once again presented by Schumacher in his book Small is Beautiful.
- Brundtland Commission Report of 1987 introduced the concept of ‘Sustainable Development’ that focused on the conservation of resources for the future.
Land supports natural vegetation, wild life, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems. It is present in limited size, therefore, it is important to use the available land for various purposes with careful planning.
In India, about 43 per cent of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. 30 per cent of the total surface area of the country are mountains which ensure perennial flow of some rivers and provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
About 27 percent of the area of the country is the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.
The use of land is determined by two factors.
- First, physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types.
- Second, Human factors such as population density, technological capability.
Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km Land use data is available only for 93 per cent of the total geographical area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully. Also, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed.
In India, net sown area accounts for 46.24% of total land while fallow and other than current fallow. About 23 percent of India’s land is covered with forests while approx. 9 percent of land is barren. Net sown area and fallow land put together can further increase land under farming to 54% but the pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.
Land Use Pattern in India
States like Punjab, Haryana have more than 80% of their land under farming due to suitable climate, fertile soils, perennial rivers, canals and wells for irrigation, modern farming methods.
States like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands have less than 10% of their land under farming due to economic backwardness, dense forests, shallow soils, uneven and rocky surfaces. Forest area in India is far lower than the desired 33 percent of geographical area.
Land Degradation and Measures
Land degradation is the process by which soil loses its fertility. Human activities have brought about degradation of land and also increased the pace of natural forces to cause damage to land.
There are various cause of land degradation such as:
- Large-scale deforestation for agricultural, industrial and infrastructural activities.
- Overgrazing of pasture by cattle, sheep and goats.
- Defective methods of farming such as fallowing, over irrigation in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, north western Rajasthan.
- Increased salinity and alkalinity of soil due to over irrigation in many parts of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
- Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and trace of over-burdening.
By mineral processing which involves grinding of stones e.g., for cement, ceramics etc., industries generate fine dust in atmosphere which retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. This eventually affects quality and quantity of under-ground water.
How to conserve land resources?
- Planting more and more trees.
- Protection of the existing forest cover; development of the shelter belts.
- Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
- Overgrazing of pastures should be checked.
- Soil erosion can be checked by planting vegetation.
- Control of mining activities.
- Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
Soil as a Resource
Soil is the most important renewable natural resource as it is medium of plant growth. It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
Relief, Parent Rock, Vegetation, other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil. Other factors such as temperature, running water, wind, glaciers and decomposers also play important role in soil formation.
On the basis of the factors responsible for soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical properties, the soils of India can be classified in different types, alluvial soil, black soil, red and yellow soil, arid soil, laterite soil and forest soil.
Classification of Soils
India has varied relief features, landforms, climatic realms and vegetation types. These have contributed in the development of various types of soils.
It is the most widely spread and important soil. Entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. It is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers. These are very fertile therefore, fit for agriculture purpose.
Regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. These soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime. These soils are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
According to age factor, alluvial soil can be divided into two types, Khadar and Bangar.
Khadar is new alluvium deposited by rivers while Bangar is old alluvium deposited by rivers.
Khadar is fine grained, light coloured and high in fertility while Bangar is coarse grained, dark coloured and comparatively lower in fertility.
Khadar is found near the river banks, flood plains and delta regions while Bangar is found in areas above flood plains.
These are black in colour and are also known as regur soils. These soils are ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.
These soils are found in the Deccan Trap (Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh). The black soil are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
They are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
Red and Yellow soils
These develop on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall. These soils found in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
These soils are also found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. In hydrated form, it looks yellow.
These develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. These soils are found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam. These soils are very useful for growing tea and coffee.
These soils have low humus content because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature.
These are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. These soils have high concentration of salt due to high rate of evaporation.
These soils range from red to brown in colour. These are found in the arid areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. Arid soils lack humus due to scarcity of vegetation.
These are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available. These soils are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.
Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation
The washing away of the top layer of soil by the action of wind and water is called soil erosion.
The processes of soil formation and erosion go on simultaneously and generally balanced however human activities disturbed this balance greatly.
There are different causes of soil erosion such as:
- Indiscriminate cutting of forests.
- Deforestation for industrial, agricultural and settlements activities.
- Practise of shifting cultivation by tribal groups.
- Overgrazing of pasturelands by cattle.
- Construction and mining activities.
- Defective methods of farming such as fallowing and over irrigation.
There are various types of soil erosion such as Gully erosion, sheet erosion, wind erosion.
Gully Erosion is caused by running water as it cut through fine soils making deep channels or ravines. The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. They are commonly found in Chambal Valley in Uttar Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope and the top soil is washed away is known as sheet erosion.
Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion.
Different ways to conserves soil
- Planting more and more trees.
- Protection of the existing forest cover.
- Keeping check on overgrazing of pastures.
- Planting of shelter belts to check wind force.
- Practice of terrace farming in hilly areas, contour ploughing, multiple cropping, strip cropping and crop rotation.