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Popular Struggles and Movements Important Questions and Answers Class 10 Political Science
Popular Struggles and Movements Very Short Answer Questions (1 Mark)
1. What was the main role of ‘FEDECOR’ organisation in Bolivia?
The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was led by ‘FEDECOR’ organisation.
2. What did the world Bank ask the Bolivian government?
The world Bank asked the Bolivian government to give up its control of municipal water supply.
3. Who dissolved the popularly elected parliament in February 2005, in Nepal?
King Gyanendra dissolved the popularly elected parliament in February 2005, in Nepal.
4. When did extraordinary popular movement begin in Nepal?
In April 2006.
5. Why did King Gyanendra replace King Birendra?
King Birendra was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001, so king Gyanendra replaced him.
6. What was the aim of popular movement of Nepal?
7. What was FEDECOR comprised of?
FEDECOR organisation was composed of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
8. What are pressure groups?
Pressure groups are organisation that attempt to influence government policies.
9. Which party supported the movement led by FEDECOR?
The movement led by FEDECOR was supported by the socialist party.
10. Who dissolved the popularly elected parliament in February 2005 in Nepal?
11. Who was made the new Prime Minister of interim government of Nepal?
Girija Prasad Koirala.
12. What does ‘BAMCEF’ mean?
Backward and Minority Community Employees Federation.
13. Who are Sectional Interest groups?
They seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society.
14. State the main aim of Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation.
Its principal concern is social justice and social equality for the entire society.
15. Distinguish between pressure groups and political parties by stating any one point of distinction.
Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power but political parties directly control and share political power.
16. Who were Maoists?
Those communists who believed in the ideology of Mao, the great leader of the Chinese Revolution were called Maoists.
Popular Struggles and Movements Short Answer Questions (3 Marks)
1. What are pressure groups? Why are they formed?
(i) Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. They do not directly control or share political power.
(ii) These organisations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations and opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
(iii) In some cases, the government’s opinion might be biased by a small group of rich and powerful people. It is here that pressure groups step in and force the government to make policies which will benefit certain other sections of society as well.
2. Which groups were involved in Bolivian Water War?
(i) The dissent against water privatisation in Bolivia was not guided by any political party but by an organisation named FEDECOR though Socialist party supported it.
(ii) That organisation consisted of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
(iii) They got support from federation of farmers, the confederation of factory worker’s unions, students of university of Cochabamba and city’s homeless street children.
3. “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement.
(i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement aimed at restoring democracy.
(ii) All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called for a five day strike in Kathmandu.
(iii) On the last day of the ultimatum, the King was forced to concede to all the demands of the SPA. With the result an interim government was formed, becoming a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.
4. How is a democratic conflict resolved?
A democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute. In such a situation the resolution comes from outside, from the people.
5. Justify with three points that democracy evolves through popular struggles.
(i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary movement in April 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. This movement finally got success and democracy was established in the country on 24 April 2006.
(ii) People’s struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia reminds us that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy.
(iii) The Green Belt Movement in Kenya also justifies that democracy evolves through popular struggles.
6. Differentiate between Nepal’s movement and Bolivia’s popular struggle.
(i) The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic government.
(ii) The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy, while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s politics.
(iii) Both these struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels.
7. Describe the movement for democracy in Nepal, April 2006.
(i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy.
(ii) In February 2005, the king of Nepal dismissed the then prime minister and dissolved the popularly elected parliament.
(iii) The movement of April 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king.
8. Write the full form of NAPM. What do you know about it?
(i) The National Alliance for Peoples’ Movements (NAPM) is an organisation of organisations.
(ii) Various movement groups struggling on specific issues are constituents of this loose organisation which coordinates the activities of a large number of peoples’ movements in our country.
9. Distinguish between ‘pressure groups’ and ‘movement groups’ with examples.
|Pressure groups||Movement Groups|
|Pressure groups are organisation when people with common occupation interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.||Movement groups are formed with the help of mass participation.|
|These are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.||Movement groups attempt to influence polities rather than directly part in the electoral competition.|
|FEDECOR and BAMCEF are examples of pressure groups.||Narmada Bachao Andolan and Movement for Right to information are examples of movement groups.|
10. Distinguish between ‘issue-specific movements’ and ‘long term movements’.
|Issue-Specific Movements||Long Term Movement|
|These movements seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame.||These movements seek to achieve a broad goal in long span of time.|
|These movements as associated with a single issue.||These movements involve more than one issue.|
|The Nepalese movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are examples of issue-specific movements.||The environmental movement and|
the women’s movement are examples of long term movements.
Popular Struggles and Movements Long Answer Questions (5 Marks)
1. How far are pressure groups good for democracy?
(i) It may appear that it is not healthy for the groups that promote interest of one section to have influence in democracy. A democracy must look after the interest of all, not just one section. Also, it may seem that these groups wield power without responsibility.
(ii) Political parties have to face the people in elections, but these groups are not accountable to the people. Pressure groups and movements may not get their funds and support from people. Sometimes pressure groups with small public support but lots of money can hijack public discussion in favour of their narrow agenda.
(iii) But pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy. Putting pressure on rulers is not an unhealthy activity in democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity.
(iv) Governments can often come under the pressure of rich and powerful group but these public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this undue influence and reminding government of needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
(v) Even social interest groups play a valuable role. Where different groups function actively no single group can achieve dominance over society. If one group brings pressure on the government the other will bring counter pressure not to make policies in the way the first group desires. The government hears about what people want. This brings a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests.
2. Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia.
(i) People’s struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia power that struggles are integral part of democracy.
(ii) The world Bank pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold these rights to a multinational company which increased the price of water by four times. Many people received monthly water bill of 1,000 in a country where average income is around 5,000 a month.
(iii) In January 2000, a new alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organised a successful four day strike.
(iv) The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off.
(v) The police resorted to brutal regression when the agitations started in February followed in April and the government imposed martial law.
(vi) But the power of people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government concede to all the demand of the protestors.
(vii) The contract with MNC was cancelled and the water supply was restored with the municipality at old rates.
3. How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain with examples.
(i) They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions, etc.
(ii) They often organise protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programmes. Workers’ organisations, employees’ associations and most of the movement groups often resort to these tactics in order to force the government to take note of their demands.
(iii) Most of the movement groups take a political stance without being a party. They have political ideology and political positions on major issues.
(iv) In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by, or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
(v) Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.
4. Describe in brief any four features of movement for democracy in Nepal.
(i) Nepal was one of the third wave’ countries that had won democracy in 1990. Although the King formally remained the head of the state, the real power was exercised by popularly elected representatives.
(ii) King Birendra, who has accepted this transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, was killed in 2001.
(iii) King Gyanendra, the new king of Nepal, was not prepared to accept democratic rule. He took advantage of the weakness and unpopularity of the democratically elected government.
(iv) In February 2005, the king dismissed the then Prime Minister and dissolved the popularly elected Parliament. The movement of April 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king.
(v) Finally, the king was forced to bow. As a result, the parliament was restored and laws were passed to take away most of the powers of the king.