Neolithic Age or New Stone Age| Tools, Sites, Artefacts, Paintings
• The word ‘neolithic’ was coined by John Lubbock in 1865.
Time Period: began around 9000 B.C. but in the Indian context it began in 7000 B.C.
• During this period, men started cultivating land and grew fruits & corn like ragi and horse gram.
• They domesticated cattle, sheep and goats.
• They also weaved cloth from wool and cotton.
• Permanent village settlements are also present.
• Introduction of first made pottery by hand and then with the help of the potter’s wheel.
The Neolithic man used stone tools but now they were polished polished, pecked, and ground stone tools.
• The stone tools can be divided under two groups:
→ Ground and polished stone implements: Associated with the Neolithic culture because of their links with food-producing stage and domestication of animals.
→ Small and chipped stone tools: Had been continuing from earlier Mesolithic levels which are generally termed as microliths.
• A digging-stick is used for digging the ground, a sickle used for harvesting, an axe is used for cutting trees.
• Mehrgarh in northwest Pakistan, In Baluchistan , sites of Neolithic age include Kili Ghul Muhammad, Rana Ghundai, Anjira, Siah-damb and Mundigak.
• Paiyampalli in south between Krishna and Kaveri.
• Burzahom and Gufkral in Jammu Kashmir, Piklihal in Andhra Pradesh, Taradih and Singhbhumi in West Bengal, Maski, Brahmagiri, Tekkalakota in Karnataka, Paiyampatti in Tamil Nadu, Piklihal and Hallur in Andhra Pradesh, Garo hills in Meghalaya, Chirand, Koldhiva, Mahagara in Uttar Pradesh and Senuwar in Bihar.
• Chirand and Kashmir are only sites where considerable bone implements were found.
Evolution of Village settlements
• In the later Neolithic age, people started living in the village settlements based on sedentary life.
• Neolithic men started burial for the dead and constructed tombs for them which were called Dolmens.
|Mehrgarh (7000 BC)||Baluchistan (Pakistan)||• Oldest Neolithic site in Indian subcontinent.
• Evidence of cotton and grape along with wheat and barley.
• People started living in mud-brick houses.
|Burzahom (2700 BC)||Kashmir||• Evidence of domestic dogs were buried along with their masters in their graves.
• People lived in on the lake side in pits.
|Gufkral (2000 BC)||Kashmir||• Practiced both agriculture & domestication of animals.
• Used tools and weapons made of polished stone as well as bone.
|Pikilihal, Brahmagiri, Maski, Hallur, Takkalakota, T. Narsipur, Kodekal, Sanganakallu (2,000 BC to 800 BC)||South of the Godavari river||• Settled on the top of the granite hills.
• Domesticated sheep, goats, and cattle.
• Ash mounds have been found.
|Chpani-Mando, Koldihawa and Mahagara||Belan Valley||• Earliest evidence of use of pottery.
• People lived in circular or rectangular houses made of mud and reed.
• Produced ragi and horsegram.
• Specialised tools like chisels, celts and adzes.
|Chirand, Chechar, Senuwar and Taradib||Bihar||• Cultivated rice, barley, field pea, lentil and some millets.
• Structural remains of mud floors, pottery, microliths and ground celts, bone tools and beads of semi-precious stones besides terracotta human figurines.
|Cachar, Garo hills and Naga Hills (2000 BC)||Assam||• Shouldered celts, small ground axes of rounded form and cord-impressed pottery, heavily tempered with quartz particles.|