NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
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Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 History NCERT Solutions
1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
The nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another in search of new pastures. They all needed to adapt to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures. When the grass in a particular part is exhausted and the season becomes unconducive, the nomadic tribes move to some other area.
Advantages to the environment: The cyclic movement of the pastoralists allows sufficient time for restoration of natural vegetation. The vegetation on the higher tracts of mountains and on the foothills are not allowed to overgrow, and it is utilised by humans and animals. The continuous movement of the pastoralists adds manure to the fields and allows the pastures to recover. Grazing on the pastures prevents overuse of land for cultivation and other purposes.
2. Discuss why the colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists.
Criminal Tribes Act
Wasteland rules: Under the Waste Land Rules, uncultivated land was brought under cultivation. The basic aim was to increase land revenue because by expanding cultivation Government could increase its revenue collection. Crops like jute, cotton and indigo were used as raw material in England. So the British government wanted to bring more and more areas under these crops. Under the Act the grazing land was given to big landlords. Due to this, nomads grazing grounds shrank. Due to shrinking grazing grounds the agricultural stock of the nomads declined and their trade and crafts were adversely affected.
Forest Acts: For the purpose of producing commercially viable timber like deodar or sal, a number of forest acts were enacted. Some tracts of forest were declared ‘Reserved’, which prevented pastoralists from accessing them. A pastoralist was able to graze in the areas that were classified as ‘Protected’, but their movements were severely restricted. Since colonial authorities believed that grazing destroyed roots and depleted forest fertility, these laws were enacted. As a result, pastoralists were restricted from moving around in the forests with specific timings that controlled how much time they spent in them. Their lives were governed by forest department permits.
Criminal Tribes Act: The British officials wanted to control the lives of their subjects. They largely distrusted the nomadic and pastoral communities. In 1871, the Criminal Tribes Act was passed by which several communities of traders, craftsmen and pastoralists were declared as criminal. These pastoralists were obliged to stay in particular villages under close inspection of the local police. They had to acquire permits to move to other areas. Thus, several restrictions were imposed on the activities of the pastoralists.
Grazing Tax: The colonial government imposed several taxes on the nomads and herders for use of resources. Taxes were imposed on use of canal water or land as well as trade in goods. In the mid-nineteenth century, taxes on grazing were introduced in all the pastoral areas. The herders had to pay the tax on cattle per head which kept on increasing. Between the 1850s and 1880s, the government auctioned contractors to collect taxes on their behalf. These contractors collected very high taxes from the local people. The government then began to directly collect taxes from the 1880s. As a result, the pastoralists had to sell their animals to pay the high taxes. They also started borrowing money from the moneylenders. Thus, the livestock owned by the pastoralists started to decline.
3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
The lives of the African pastoralists have changed drastically in the colonial and post-colonial phases. In the 19th century, the European powers were fighting for colonies. They occupied several regions which were divided by multiple international borders.
Maasailand was divided between the British and the Germans. The Maasai community was pushed into a small area which considerably reduced their grazing lands.
The colonial rulers promoted cultivation on pasture lands. The movement of herders was restricted in these settlements. The Maasais, therefore, lost their grazing areas.
The Maasais were forced to live in a dry area where there was little water and poor pasture. They could not graze their herds in such areas.
The Maasai community was not left with many pasture tracts. As a result, their livestock declined and their economic conditions became worse.
4. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
Uncultivated land used as grazing land by the nomad pastoralists were brought under cultivation.
Severe restrictions were made in their movement from one place to another, by permits issued by colonialists.