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Chapter 2 Physical Features of India Class 9 Geography NCERT Solutions
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(d) None of the above
► (c) Peninsula
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectivity called
(d) None of the above
► (c) Purvachal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(d) Northern Circar
► (c) Kannad
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi
► (c) Mahendragiri
2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What is the bhabar?
Bhabar is a narrow belt of the Ganga plain covered with pebbles lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks.
(i) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
(a) The Greater Himalayas or Himadri (Inner Himalayas)
(b) Himachal or Lesser Himalayas (Middle Himalayas)
(c) The Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas)
(iii) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
Malwa plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan range.
(iv) Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Lakshadweep islands is the island group having coral origin.
3. Distinguish between
(i) Bhangar and Khadar
|This is a highland composed of old alluvium.||This is a lowland composed of new alluvium.|
|It is often saturated with calcareous nodules known as kankar.||It is often characterised by clay soil, which is very fertile.|
|It is always above the level of flood plains of the river.||It is flooded almost every year and new alluvium is deposited.|
(ii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
|Western Ghats||Eastern Ghats|
|Western Ghats mark the western edge of the Deccan Plateau.||Eastern Ghats mark the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau.|
|They lie parallel to the Western coast along the Arabian Sea.||They lie along the eastern coast along the Bay of Bengal.|
|They are continuous and can only be crossed through passes only.||They are discontinuous and irregular and have been dissected by the rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.|
|They are higher in south and the height increases towards the south.||They are higher in the north and the height increases towards the north.|
|Average height is between 900 m to 1600 m.||Average height is 600 m.|
|The highest peak is Anai Mudi with height of 2,695 m above sea level.||The highest peak is Mahendragiri with height of 1,501 m above the sea level.|
4. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
The major physiographic divisions of India are
- The Himalayan Mountains
- The Northern Plains
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian Desert
- The Coastal Plains
- The Islands
|The Himalayan Region||The Peninsular Plateau|
|Himalayas are young fold and loftiest mountains of the world comprising of several parallel ranges.||It is the oldest landmass of the Indian subcontinent; was part of the Gondwana land|
|They were formed due to folding of sedimentary rock strata in the bed of the Tethys Sea.||The Peninsular Plateau was born by breaking up of the Gondwana land.|
|Consists of the loftiest mountains and deep valleys||Consists of broad and shallow valleys, and rounded hills|
|Composed of sedimentary rocks||Composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks|
5. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra and their tributaries form the Northern Plains of India, which are alluvial plains formed by sediments brought from the mountains and deposited by rivers in the depression formed after the uplift of the Himalayas.
The plains spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq. km. The length of this plain is 2,400 km long and 240 km broad. It is densely populated and intensely cultivated area.
With adequate water supply and favourable climate, it is agriculturally a very productive part of India.
The Northern Plains of India are divided into three divisions.
- Punjab Plains covers the western part of the Northern plains. They are formed by Indus river and its tributaries.
- Ganga Plains extends between Ghaggar and the Teesta river, spread over the states of Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
- The Brahmaputra Plain lies to the east of the Ganga plains. It covers the area of Assam.
6. Write short notes on the following.
(a) The Indian Desert
Indian desert is a sandy plain that lies west of the Aravali hills and has sand dunes covering a large part. Barchans (crescent-shaped sand dunes) cover a majority of the desert. Near the Indo-Pakistan border, longitudinal sand dunes are more common. It has arid climate with scarce vegetation and rainfall below 150 mm per year. Its rivers only appear in the rainy season, disappearing soon afterward. In order for them to reach the sea, they lack enough water. There is only one large river in this area, the River Luni.
(ii) The Central Highlands
The part of the Peninsular plateau lying north of the Narmada river is called Central Highlands. The Central Highlands are comprised of hard igneous and metamorphic rocks. They are bordered to the north by the Aravali range. The Central Highlands include the Malwa plateau to the west and Chotanagpur plateau to the east. They are broad in the west and narrow eastward. Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand are the local names for the eastward extension of the Malwa plateau. A southern tributary of Ganga, the Damodar river drains the Chotanagpur plateau in the east.
(iii) The Island groups of India
India has two groups of islands namely, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar islands group.
These island groups are located in the Arabian Sea, west of Malabar coast of Kerala. They are of coral origin formed by deposition of the dead remains. They are 32 square kilometers in size. Lakshadweep’s administrative headquarters are the Kavaratti islands, which have a variety of flora and fauna. Pitti island, an uninhabited island, has a bird sanctuary.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar islands are a chain of islands in the Bay of Bengal extending from north to south. These are the raised portion of submerged mountain ranges that emerge from the sea. These islands are of strategic importance because of their close proximity to south-east Asia. Barren Island is the only active volcano. Some of these islands are volcanic in origin. Their capital city is Port Blair, and they are home to a very diverse flora and fauna.
8. On an outline map of India show the following.
(i) Mountain and hill ranges – the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali and the Cardamom hills.
(ii) Peaks – K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus – Chotanagpur and Malwa
(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands.