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Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After Class 8 History NCERT Solutions
1. What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?
Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the East India Company to recognize her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband. Her request was turned down by the British.
2. What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?
Indians who converted to Christianity were now entitled to inherit their ancestors’ property. The law made it easier for Indians to convert to Christianity.
3. What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?
Sepoys objected to new cartridges coated with cow and pig fat that they were asked to use. They believed that it affected their religious sentiments, which led to both Hindus and Muslims being against it.
4. How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor, lived a life of extreme poverty during the last few years of his life. He and his wife were imprisoned in Rangoon. He died there four years after his imprisonment.
5. What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?
Below are the reasons:
(i) The Nawabs and Rajas had gradually lost their authority and honour.
(ii) A number of rulers fought with each other when the Mughal emperors lost control of their territories. This gave the British an opportunity to seize control.
(iii) The British appointed residents in every powerful kingdom to observe the development of the state.
(iv) The Company had all the authorities under control.
6. What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?
There was a wide spread impact on the people of the whole country and its ruling families after Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion. These were:
(i) He wrote to all chiefs and rulers in the country, urging them to come forward and organize an Indian confederacy to fight the British. All small and large kingdoms, kings, Nawabs, Rajas, princes, zamindars, chiefs and even many Hindu and Muslim religious leaders welcomed this initial step taken by the Emperor and joined together in rebelling against the British.
(ii) Several regiments mutinied and joined other troops at nodal points like Delhi, Kanpur, and Lucknow.
(iii) People from towns and villages also joined the rebellion in large numbers and rallied around local leaders, zamindars and rulers who were willing to fight against the British to regain their lost authority.
7. How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?
The British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh by adopting various methods such as:
(i) A reward was announced for loyal landowners.
(ii) They were assured that their traditional rights over their lands would be preserved.
(iii) Those who rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British and did not kill any whites, they would be safe and their rights to land would not be denied.
8. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
(i) A significant proclamation was made by Queen Victoria in the year 1858. According to the proclamation, the Indian kings would be able to run their own kingdoms and the English would refrain from attempting to depose them from their positions.
(ii) In September 1857, the city of Delhi was recaptured from the rebel forces.
(iii) Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor, was tried in court and sentenced to life imprisonment. His boys were shot and killed right in front of his eyes.
(iv) The British also made every effort to regain the trust of the people by offering prizes to landowners who remained loyal to the Crown. For example, landowners were to be permitted to continue to enjoy their historic rights to their properties, notwithstanding the passage of time. They were persuaded that as long as they submitted to the British and did not kill any white people, they would be secure and that their rights to land and resources would not be denied to them.