These NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 9 The Making of National Movement : 1870s-1947 will become your comprehensive guide in easy learning and evaluating yourself. It will provide a lot of relevant content, making you well versed in variety of topics and able to easily recall your ideas. Chapter 9 Class 8 History NCERT Solutions will help in developing a wide range of knowledge when you’re brainstorming solutions.
Chapter 9 The Making of National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 History NCERT Solutions
1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
The people were dissatisfied with the British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. Some of the reasons for this dissatisfaction are:
The Arms Act- Passed in 1878: This Act disallowed Indians from possessing arms.
The Vernacular Press Act in 1878: The purpose of this Act was to silence people who were critical of the administration. The government could seize the assets of newspapers if they published anything that was deemed “objectionable” under this Act.
The Ilbert Bill controversy in 1883: The government attempted to pass the Ilbert Bill. This bill allowed for the trial of British or European citizens by Indian judges, and it aimed for equality in the country between British and Indian judges. The white opposition, on the other hand, forced the government to withdraw the measure. This angered the Indians even more.
2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
The Indian National Congress wished to speak for the entire people belonging to different communities of India.
3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
(i) The Government of India’s defence spending increased dramatically as a result of the First World War. As a result, the government raised taxes on individual income and corporate profits.
(ii) Rising military spending and demand for war supplies resulted in a dramatic increase in costs, putting ordinary people in a precarious position. It was difficult for them to meet even their most basic necessities.
(iii) On the other hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. The conflict increased demand for industrial commodities such as jute bags, cotton, and railroads while decreasing imports from other countries. As a result, during the war, Indian industry grew.
4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
In 1940, the Muslim League passed a resolution calling for autonomous nations for Muslims in the country’s northwestern and eastern regions. There was no mention of partition or Pakistan in the resolution.
5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
The Congress was “moderate” in its objectives and methods for the first twenty years of its existence thuse they were called Moderates. The moderate leaders wanted to develop public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule. They published newspapers and other informative material to make Indians aware about the economic and political ruin being made by Britishers.
6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
Radicals criticized the moderates for their “prayer policy,” emphasising the need of self-reliance and productive work. They stated that people should not trust the government’s allegedly noble intentions and instead fight for Swaraj. They intended to investigate extreme approaches to freedom. They placed a lot of faith in the people’s abilities. Radicals were those who believed in taking political action. People had to fight for the Swaraj, which was to be realised by mass action.
7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
The Non-Cooperation Movement remained non-violent at most of the places. But some people interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi in their own way mostly to suit their local grievances.
(i) The Patidar peasants of Kheda organized campaigns against the high land revenue demand.
(ii) Liquor shops were picketed in coastal area of Andhra Pradesh and interior Tamil Nadu.
(iii) The tribals and poor peasants in country districts staged a number of forest satyagraha to protest against the new forest laws.
(iv) In Punjab the agitation of the Sikhs demanded to remove the corrupt Mahants from Gurudwaras, who were supported by the British.
(v) In Assam the tea garden labourers demanded a big hike in their wages. They gave the slogan “Gandhi Maharaj ki jai”. In many folk songs of Assam Gandhiji was referred to us “Gandhi Raja”.
8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Because the British government maintained a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt, Gandhiji chose to break the law. Salt, according to Mahatma Gandhiji and other nationalist leaders, is a vital component of one’s diet, and so a tax on salt is unjust. He led a march to the seaside town of Dandi, where he disobeyed the salt prohibition by gathering natural salt from the beach and boiling it to make salt.
9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
The developments leading to the creation of Pakistan are:
A two-nation theory: Initially, the Muslim League did not refer to Pakistan as a Muslim country. However, it has been advocating a separate country for Muslims since the 1930s.
Provincial elections of 1937: The elections were a decisive factor for the Muslim league to decide that Muslims are a minority in India and they have to have a separate nation for them for their just representation in politics.
Tussle between congress and Muslim league: When congress rejected the Muslim league’s offer for a joint congress-league government in united provinces, the league decided to part ways forever.
Failed talks: There can be no successful dialogue if both the Congress and the Muslim League agree on only one nation. At the close of WWII, the British attempted to negotiate with both the Congress and the League, but their efforts were in vain.
Provincial elections of 1946: Muslim league’s spectacular victory on the seats reserved for Muslims gave the confidence to create a separate nation.
Mass agitation: The failure of cabinet mission 1946 led to the mass agitation led by the Muslim league. Partition was finalised and Pakistan was born.