These NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations have been curated by the experts and can be helpful in clearing your doubts instantly and are comprehensive. It will help in building a great foundation of knowledge and make easy for the students to understand basics. Chapter 10 Class 7 History will provide a lot of relevant content, making you well versed in variety of topics and able to easily recall your ideas.
Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations Class 7 History NCERT Solutions
1. Match the following:
|subadar||a revenue farmer|
|faujdar||a high noble|
|misl||Maratha peasant warriors|
|chauth||a Mughal military commander|
|kunbis||a band of Sikh warriors|
|umara||tax levied by the Marathas|
|faujdar||a Mughal military commander|
|ijaradar||a revenue farmer|
|misl||a band of Sikh warriors|
|chauth||tax levied by the Marathas|
|kunbis||Maratha peasant warriors|
|umara||a high noble|
2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the _________.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal _______.
(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari in _______.
(d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was ________.
(d) Burhan-ul-mulk-Sa’adat Khan.
3. State whether true or false:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
4. What were the offices held by Sa‘adat Khan?
The combined offices of Subadar, Diwani, and Faujdar were held by Sa’adat Khan.
5. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
(i) The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to abolish the jagirdari system in order to reduce the influence of the Mughals in their provinces.
(ii) The jagirdars appointed to the Mughal courts were corrupt, so he reduced their size and appointed his own loyal servants to fill the vacancies.
(iii) They checked the accounts of jagirdars in order to prevent fraud and corruption. A court appointed by the Nawab reassessed the revenue of all the districts.
(iv) In order to reduce the Mughal influence in Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan transferred all Mughal jagirdars to Orissa and ordered a major revaluation of Bengal’s revenues. Cash revenue was collected from all zamindars in a strict manner. Therefore, many zamindars had to borrow money from bankers and moneylenders.
6. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?
(i) The Sikhs were organized into a number of bands called jathas, and later, misls under a number of able leaders.
(ii) The combined forces of Sikhs known as the grand army (dal Khalsa) used to meet at Amritsar at Baisakhi and Diwali in order to make collective decisions.
(iii) They offered protection in exchange for a 20 percent tax on the product called rakhi.
(iv) Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with a belief that they were meant to rule.
7. Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
Shivaji led the Marathas in their brave fight against the Mughals. Between 1720 CE and 1761 CE, different Peshwas led the Marathas and established successful military organisations, which helped in expanding the Maratha kingdom. Maratha rulers sought recognition as the lords of the whole Deccan. They even had the right to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi throughout the entire region. As a result, they wanted to expand beyond the Deccan and crush Mughal power.
8. What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
Asaf Jah was the founder of the state of Hyderabad and one of the most influential members of the Mughal court during the time of the Mughals. He was initially given the responsibility of Awadh, and subsequently on, the responsibility of Deccan. He was able to increase his position as a result of the unrest in the Deccan and the weakening of the Mughal Court. The skilled troops and officials he imported from northern India to his state were well-regarded. He selected mansabdars and granted jagirs to those who deserved them. Despite the fact that he reigned independently, he was nevertheless considered a servant of the Mughal Empire. He hardly ever accepted a decision made by the Mughals, and he hardly ever had to deal with Mughal meddling. As a result, Asaf Jah was able to reinforce his position.
9. Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
A merchant or banker does not have as much influence today as they did in the eighteenth century. The democratic idea has changed everything. In the 21st century, everything from revenue share to price on the market is governed by a higher authority chosen by the people, as opposed to the 18th century.