NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order will become your comprehensive guide in easy learning and evaluating yourself. Students can easily review the answers they prepared and also know whether they learned it properly or not.
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Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order Class 12 Political Science II NCERT Solutions
1. State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.
2. Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency
(a) The call for ‘Total Revolution.
(b) The Railway Strike of 1974
(c) The Naxalite Movement
(d) The Allahabad High Court verdict
(e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report
(c) The Naxalite Movement
3. Match the Following:
|(a) Total Revolution||i. Indira Gandhi|
|(b) Garibi hatao||ii. Jayaprakash Narayan|
|(c) Students’ Protest||iii. Bihar Movement|
|(d) Railway Strike||iv. George Fernandes|
|(a) Total Revolution||ii. Jayaprakash Narayan|
|(b) Garibi hatao||i. Indira Gandhi|
|(c) Students’ Protest||iii. Bihar Movement|
|(d) Railway Strike||iv. George Fernandes|
4. What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?
The Janata Party lacked guidance, leadership, and a unified platform. They were too preoccupied with fighting with one another to coordinate their plans.
Janata Party government could not bring a fundamental change in policies pursued by congress.
There was a split in Janata Party and the government led by Morarji Desai which lost its majority in less than 18 months.
Charan Singh government was formed due to support of Congress party which later decided to withdraw its support resulting resignation of Charan Singh government within four months.
5. The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?
The Shah commission was appointed in May 1977 by the Janata Party government, led by retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India J.C. Shah, to investigate allegations of abuse of authority, excesses, and malpractices, as well as actions taken in the name of the emergency declared on June 25, 1975. The commission performed to examine various evidence to give testimony, even including Indira Gandhi to appear before the commission, but she refused to respond to any questions.
Findings of Shah Commission:
- It found many ‘excesses’ committed during Emergency.
- Under preventive detention laws nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested.
- Press censorship took place without any proper legal sanctions.
- Even general manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation received verbal orders from the officers of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspapers press at 2 a.m. on 26 June 1975.
6. What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?
Economic Crisis: War took place between India and Pakistan in December in 1971 and Pakistan was defeated in the war. But this war had put a heavy strain on India economy. In 1974 prices increases over 30 percent, the failure of monsoon in 1972-73 led to the downfall in agricultural production. Poverty and unemployment was very high. Hardship of masses increased and there was general atmosphere of dissatisfaction among the masses.
Railway Employees’ strike: In April, 1974 there was a high strike of Railway employees which affected Indian Economy.
Gujarat movement. In January 1974, students in Gurjarat started an agitation against 20% hike in hostel food in the I.D. College of Engineering, but very soon it became a big movement known as Nav Nirman Movement. The movement was supported by all the opposition parties and demanded the resignation of the Chief Minister of Gujarat. President’s rule was imposed in Gujarat and ultimately Assembly elections were held in June 1975. The Congress was defeated in this election.
Bihar Movement: This movement was started by the students against the misrule, unemployment, rising process, corruption, etc. Later on this movement was led by the Great Socialist Jaya Prakash Narayan. The movement of JP.Narayan is also known as ‘Total Revolution’.
Allahabad High Court Judgement: On 12 June, 1975, Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High Court passed a judgement declaring Indira Gandhi’s election to the Lok Sabha, invalid and made her ineligible to occupy her seat for six years. On June 24, Supreme Court vocational judge Justice Krishna Iyer granted a stay that allowed Mrs. Gandhi to function as the Prime Minister on a condition that she should not draw a salary and speak or vote in parliament until the case was decided. This was considered the most important reason which led to declaration of emergency.
Demonstration in Delhi Ramleela Ground by all opposition parties. The opposition parties organized massive demonstration at the ground, JP. Narayan Nation-wide Satyagraha for her resignation and asked the army, police and the government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders of the government.
7. The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?
Imposition of Internal Emergency: Mrs. Indira Gandhi declared an internal emergency for the first time in the history of independent India. Immediately following the declaration of an emergency, the heads of all opposing parties, including J.P. Narayan, were imprisoned. The true reason for declaring an emergency was to stay in office and extend the tenure.
Sanjay Gandhi as the Extra Constitutional Centre of Power: During emergency Sanjay Gandhi appeared as the extra constitutional centre of power. It was he who controlled the administration of India.
Excess during Emergency: Basic liberties of the people were suppressed. No individual or party could utter word against the imposition of emergency or the excess committed by the government.
Constitutional Amendments: Through the 42nd amendment, the Indira government weakened the authority of the judiciary. In reality, the judiciary was subordinate to the government. Judicial inquiry was severely limited to a great extent.
Rising Prices: The condition of the people of India had become very pitiable due to the continuous rise in prices. People were very sore with the Congress government over this issue.
Compulsory Sterilization: Several governments, including Haryana, implemented forced sterilisation at the insistence of Sanjay Gandhi. Buses were halted and passengers were taken to a hospital for sterilisation.
Abolition of Bonus: During an emergency, the Congress government abolished bonuses for public sector workers. As a result, they were furious with the Congress government.
Availability of Alternate leadership: J.P. Narayan emerged as a leader of Indian unrest. He was the most respected leader after Nehru. People came to realise that they can fall back on J.P. Narayan after dislodging the Congress from power.
8. Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity.
(a) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
(b) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media.
(d) Working of Police and Bureaucracy.
(a) Effects on civil liberties for citizens: Article 19 fundamental rights (six freedoms) were immediately halted throughout the entire country. The prohibition of Art. 19 continues until the state of emergency is lifted. However, according to the 44th Amendment, the freedoms guaranteed by Art. 19 will be suspended only if a proclamation of emergency is issued on the basis of war or foreign aggression, not if a proclamation of emergency is issued on the basis of an armed uprising. During the emergency period in June 1975, demonstrations, strikes, and public unrest were prohibited. The government made extensive use of preventive detection.
(b) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary: The President can also suspend the right to to move the court to enforce any other Fundamental Rights. All procedures underway in any court for the enforcement of the aforementioned rights may be suspended for the duration of the proclamation or for such brief time as may be stated in the order. The parliament brought many new changes in constitution which declared that the election of Prime Minister, President, and Vice President could not be challenged in the court. 42nd amendment was passed to bring various changes in the constitution.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media: During an emergency, the government has the authority to halt the usual operation of the media. During an emergency, the government stopped press freedom in 1975. All content to be published in newspapers was required to have prior approval. Censorship of the press was imposed. Magazines such as the Seminar and the Mainstream ceased publication rather than succumb to control. Many journalists were jailed for writing anti-emergency articles.
(d) Working of Police and Bureaucracy: During emergency police and bureaucracy are entirely committed to the executive. They followed the orders of the executive. Federation was changed into unitary form of government. Strikes were banned. Large number of arrest was made by the police without trials.
9. In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.
On the night of 25 June, 1975 President of India declared emergency on the advice on the Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi. Almost all the leaders of opposition parties were arrested which affected the working of political parties. Agitation, strikes, demonstration, etc. were not allowed. All liberties given under Article 19 were suspended.
Due to censorship on the freedom of Press and other restrictions democratic functioning of political parties were badly affected. The public opinion was against the Congress Government. Jaya Prakash Narayan became a symbol of democratic values.
The declaration of an emergency and its subsequent implementation forced political leaders to realise that they would perish if they did not unify against Indira Gandhi’s autocratic style. As a result, the leaders of different parties who met in jails decided to establish one party, the Janata Party. As a result, the Janata Party is said to have been founded in prison.
The formation of the Janata Party guaranteed that non-Congress ballots were not split. The 1977 election was a vote on emergency events, and the Congress Party was defeated.
10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups …… .. … The Janata Party also went through major convulsions …. David Bulter, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parties?
(a) The imposition of emergency in 1977 and the crisis among the ruling party made the system in India look like a two-party system.
(b) The two parties that mainly existed were:
- The Congress party
- Non-Congress party
It is described as close to two-party system because this period saw the emergence of another party apart from Congress i.e. Janata Party and the end of dominance of a single party rule in India.
(c) The main causes for the split in Congress the election of Presidential candidate in 1969. and in Janata Party the tensions among three main party leaders: Morarji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram for the leadership in 1979 led to the split.