NCERT-Solutions-for-Class-12-Political-Science-Regional-Aspirations
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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations will be useful in increasing concentration skill and score better marks in the exams. It can be used to help you remember the details of any question.

Gkrankers offer Regional Aspirations Class 12 Political Science II Textbook NCERT Solutions that will help you developing deeper into the chapters and get a vast understanding of the concepts that are applied.

Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations Class 12 Political Science II NCERT Solutions

1. Match the following.

A. Nature of regional aspirationsB. States
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehoodi. Nagaland /Mizoram
(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centreii. Jharkhand /Chattisgarh
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehoodiii. Punjab
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identityiv. Tamil Nadu

Solution

A. Nature of regional aspirationsB. States
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehoodiii. Punjab
(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centreiv. Tamil Nadu
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehoodii. Jharkhand /Chattisgarh
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identityi. Nagaland /Mizoram

2. Regional aspirations of the people of North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for greater autonomy and movement for separate national existence. On the map of the North-East, using different shades for these three, show the States where these expressions are prominently found.

Solution

Three issues dominate the politics of North-East: demands for autonomy, movements for secession, and opposition to ‘outsiders’. Major initiatives on the first issue in the 1970s set the stage for some dramatic developments on the second and the third in the 1980s.

Demands for autonomy: This demand arose in Tripura and Manipur which compromised the state of Assam. This majorly arose when the non assamese political leaders felt that the assamese was forcibly imposed upon them.

Secessionist Movement: The mizo hills area in Mizoram never felt that they were under British therefore after independence they did not considered themselves as the part of India. Several campaigns started to be an independent state.

Movements against outsiders: This issue has taken place in several states of North east. The Assam movement was such movement against outsiders because they suspected that there were huge numbers of illegal migrants from Bangladesh.

3. What were the main provisions of the Punjab accord? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab and its neighbouring States?

Solution

Punjab Accord was an agreement signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal in 1985 to be known as ‘Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord’ also to create normalcy in Punjab:

  • It was agreed that Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab, a separate commission would be appointed to resolve the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
  • A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
  • The agreement also provided for compensation to and better treatment of those affected by the militancy in Punjab and the withdrawal of the application of Armed Forces Special Powers Act in Punjab.

Despite this effort peace couldn’t be established in Punjab:

  • Militancy and counter insurgency violence led to excesses by the police and violations of human rights.
  • It led to fragmentation of the Akali Dal.
  • The central government had to impose President’s rule in the State and the normal electoral and political process was suspended.

Peace returned to Punjab by the middle of 1990s. The alliance of Akali Dal (Badal) and the BJP scored a major victory in 1997, in the first normal elections in the State in the post-militancy era. The State is once again preoccupied with questions of economic development and social change.

4. Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?

Solution

In 1970s Akali Dal started to demand Political autonomy in Punjab, and passed a resolution at Anandpur Sahib conference:

  • The Anandpur Sahib Resolution asserted regional autonomy and wanted to redefine centre-state relationship in the country.
  • The resolution also spoke of the aspirations of the Sikh qaum (community or nation) and declared its goal as attaining the bolbala (dominance or hegemony) of the Sikhs.

The resolution was controversial due to:

  • Akali government was dismissed in 1980s it lost its importance.
  • The leadership of the movement passed from the moderate Akalis to the extremist elements and took the form of armed insurgency.
  • These militants made their headquarters inside the Sikh holy shrine, the Golden Temple in Amritsar, and turned it into an armed fortress.
  • In June 1984, the Government of India carried out ‘Operation Blue Star’, code name for army action in the Golden Temple. In this operation, the government could successfully flush out the militants, but it also damaged the historic temple and deeply hurt the sentiments of the Sikhs.

5. Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to multiple regional aspirations in that State.

Solution

Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.

Jammu region consists of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and speakers of various languages, in the areas of foothills and plains.

Ladakh region is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims and maintains an little population area.

These internal divisions lead to multiple regional aspiration in the state:

There is one strand of separatists who want a separate Kashmiri nation, independent of India and Pakistan.

Then there are groups that want Kashmir to merge with Pakistan.

There is a third strand which wants greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian union.

The idea of autonomy attracts the people of Jammu and Ladakh regions in a different way. They often complain of neglect and backwardness.

6. What are the various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir? Which of these do you think are justifiable? Give reasons for your answer.

Solution

Various positions on the issue of regional Autonomy for Kashmir:

Kashmiris were promised to make accession on reference of people after situation created by tribal invasion becomes normal. But it has not been fulfilled.

Special granted to Jammu Kashmir under art 370 provides federal status, but the status has been eroded practically which led to demand of Greater State Autonomy.

There are many laws and acts that are not applicable in the region, hence it is also felt that democracy is not institutionalised in similar way as it is in rest part of the country.

The first position stated is justiciable because the situation would lead to plebiscite which would help Kashmir to protect its regional autonomy in democratic manner.

7. The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.

Solution

The Assam movement from 1979 to 1985 is a solid example of such movements against ‘outsiders’.

The movement was combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness as it was against outsiders to maintain cultural integration and poverty, unemployment also existed despite natural resources like oil, tea and coal.

The Assamese suspected that there were huge numbers of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh.

The movement was against illegal migrations, against domination of Bengalis and other outsiders, and against faulty voters’ register that included the names of lakhs of immigrants.

The agitation followed many novel methods and mobilised all sections of Assamese people, drawing support across the State.

8. All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.

Solution

Regional aspirations are very much a part of democratic politics. A large and diverse democracy like India must deal with regional aspirations on a regular basis.

The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. Example Militancy arose in Punjab, Kashmir Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movements.

It is not sufficient to have a formal democratic structure. Besides that, groups and parties from the region need to be given share in power at the State level.

The regional imbalance in economic development contributes to the feeling of regional discrimination.

9. Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Solution

We completely agree with that regional demands from various areas of India show the principle of Unity in Diversity.

To ensure the success of the political system, India must deal with regional aspirations on a daily basis, because display of regional aspirations is not an unusual occurrence. People have regional aspirations even in small nations.

The best method to react to regional goals is through democratic negotiations. Regional aspirations should not be suppressed in the name of national unity. Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.

Regional aspiration can be realised by sharing power. Every area should play an important role in determining the fate of the country, and in order to accomplish this goal, regional parties, groups, or leaders must share authority at the state and federal levels.

These demand and aspirations does not differentiate but respect diversity to retain unity in the nation.

10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:

One of Hazarika’s songs… ……..dwells on the unity theme; the seven states of north-eastern India become seven sisters born of the same mother ‘Meghalaya went own way …., Arunachal too separated and Mizoram appeared in Assam’s gateway as a groom to marry another daughter.’ …… ………… ….The song ends with a determination to keep the unity of the Assamese with other smaller nationalities that are left in the present-day Assam- ‘the Karbis and the Mising brothers and sisters are our dear ones.’ —Sanjib Baruah

(a) Which unity is the poet talking about?
(b) Why were some States of North-East created separately out of the erstwhile State of Assam?
(c) Do you think that the same theme of unity could apply to all the regions of India? Why?

Solution

(a) The poet is talking about the Unity of Assamese.
(b) The regional parties felt that the government was imposing Assamese language upon them, so the demands for separate states were raised.
(c) Yes, same theme could be applied to all the regions of India because Indian government deals with all these regional aspirations frequently.

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