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Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World Class 10 History NCERT Solutions
Write in Brief
1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas
• In China, India, and Southeast Asia traded in textiles, spices, and Chinese pottery. They were given gold and silver from Europe in return.
• From America to Europe and Asia items like gold and foods – potatoes, soya, groundnuts, tomatoes and chillies were exported.
2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonization of the Americas.
• The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas because the native Americans had no immunity against the disease that came from Europe.
• Before the discovery of America, it had been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years. So, they had no defense against the disease.
• In particular, Smallpox proved a deadly killer. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
(a) • The British government abolished the Corn Laws which resulted in cheap food coming in to Britain. British agriculture could no longer compete with imports. Huge areas of land were left uncultivated.
• Thousands of people who were thrown out of work migrated to towns and cities, leading to global agriculture and rapid urbanization. Industrial growth was made possible by this shift in population.
(b) • Rinderpest was a fast-spreading cattle plague which arrived in Africa in the 1890s. It was carried by infected cattle which was imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers. Within two years, it spread in the whole continent reaching Cape Town within five years.
• Rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy. It killed about 90% of the cattle.
• Planters, mine owners and colonial governments became successful to strengthen their power and forcing Africans into the labour market.
(c) • World War-I was mainly fought in Europe between the years 1914 to 1918. Millions of soldiers were recruited from all over the world. The scale of death and destruction – 9 million dead and 20 million injured – was unthinkable. Most of the killed and injured were men of working age.
• In Europe, during the time of World War I, there was a reduction in the workforce as people became unavailable to work due to injuries and deaths. This led to a decline in income for many families as they struggled to make ends meet.
• Due to this, the women stepped in to undertake the jobs that earlier only men were expected to do. It increased the role of women that led to a demand for their equal status in society. It made the feminist movement even stronger.
(d) • Indian trade was affected as exports and imports were reduced to half. Wheat prices in India fell by 50 per cent between 1928 and 1934.
• Farmers suffered more than people living in the cities. The British Government refused to reduce the land revenue even when the prices of agricultural goods had risen.
• The jute producers of Bengal fell deeper in debt because the price of raw jute had considerably decreased. India became an exporter of precious metals, notably gold.
• Landlords and middle-class employees in the cities were better off because the prices of essential commodities had decreased. Industrial investment enlarged as the government extended tariff protection to the industries.
(e) • It provided a cheap source of labour for MNCs.
• It stimulated world trade and increased capital inflow in the Asian Countries.
• It brought about new technology and production methods to the Asian Countries.
• It produced greater employment opportunities for Asian countries.
4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
• Improvements in transport, like lighter wagons, larger ships and faster railways helped in moving food more quickly and cheaply from a faraway farm to the final market.
• The new developed transport, like refrigerated ships, enabled the perishable foods to be delivered over the long distances.
5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
The ‘Bretton Woods’ Agreement took place in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. The Bretton Woods Conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and shortages of its member-nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up for financial post-war reconstruction, and they started the financial operations in 1947.
6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
It’s been a while since I last wrote. I hope you’re doing well over there. I’m living and working in the Caribbean as an indentured labourer. There are many hardships on the job, but I’m doing it for the sake of my family. Most of the workers here belong to Bihar, central India and the dry regions of Tamil Nadu. I was given false information by agents about the nature of work as well as living and working conditions. When I reached the plantations, I found that the living conditions were very different from what I had imagined. Living and working conditions are inadequate, and there are few legal rights. So, I hope this situation will pass soon.
7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow that involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are:
• Flow of trade: The first type of flow is the flow of trade. In the nineteenth century, it meant the trade in goods, especially in cloth or wheat. India was involved in trade relations since ancient times. It exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe.
• Flow of labour: The second type is the flow of labour. It meant the migration of people to new areas in search of employment. In the nineteenth century, thousands of Indian labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world.
• Flow of capital: The third type is the flow of capital in foreign countries either for short-term or long-term investments. The British government took high loans from the United States during World War I. These loans worsened the debt crisis that India suffered under British rule. The British government increased taxes, interest rates, and lowered prices to try to increase its revenue.
8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
There were various factors which led to the Great Depression:
• The post-war global economy was weak during that time. The problem began with the agricultural overproduction, which got worse by the falling of food grain prices. Due to the fall in prices, the agricultural incomes declined.
• Farmers began expanding their production and bringing even more produce to the markets to maintain their annual incomes. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further.
• Most of the countries took loans from the US, but American overseas lenders were wary about the same. As they decreased the amount of loans, the countries which were economically dependent on the US loans faced an acute crisis.
• In Europe, it led to the failure of some major banks and the currencies collapsed. The USA import duties were doubled in order to protect its economy.
9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
• G-77 countries is a group of developing countries that demanded a new International Economic Order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.
• The Bretton Woods twins i.e., the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have been established by the developed countries. These institutions were set up to meet the financial needs of the industrialised countries and had nothing to do with the economic growth of the former colonial countries and developing nations.
• G-77 was created entirely to cater to the needs of developing nations. Thus it was a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods system and to protect the interests of the developing countries.