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Here you will find NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India that can be useful in completing homework on time and checking your own answers. These Chapter 2 Class 10 History NCERT Solutions is helpful in getting command over the subject. It will help you in getting better grades in your exams and have an advantage over your classmates.

Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History NCERT Solutions

Write in Brief

1. Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Solution

(a) People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together which resulted in the growth of nationalist ideals. Thus, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial movements.

(b) First World War created a new political and economic situation. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Custom duties were increased and income tax introduced. Forced recruitment in villages caused widespread anger. Crops failed, this resulted in an acute shortage of food. 12 to 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics.

(c) This act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council, although it was completely opposed by Indian members. It had given the Government enormous powers to repress political activities. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

(d) In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.

2. What is meant by the idea Satyagraha?

Solution

The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. A satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence without seeking vengeance or being aggressive.

3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission

Solution

(a) On 13 April, the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a large crowd was gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. His objective, as he declared later, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, in the minds of Satyagrahis. A feeling of terror and awe.

(b) When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’. All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations. In an effort to win them over, the viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future, and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution. This did not satisfy the Congress leaders.

4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Solution

• The image of Germania was the symbol of the German nation. The image of Bharat Mata was the symbol of the Indian nation.

• Both images were used by nationalists who worked to unify their respective nation and create a liberal nation.

• The painting of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore contains images of education, food, clothing and asceticism. The other painting in which we find India holding Trishul and standing next to a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. A female figure, Germania, stands against a background of the tricolour fabric of the national flag. She is wearing a crown of oak leaves representing heroism.

Discuss

1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Solution

The different social groups that joined the Non-cooperation Movements of 1921 were lawyers, teachers, students, peasants, tribals and workers.

• Peasants, Tribal and workers joined the movement from the countryside. They did so with hopes of self-emancipation. Peasants rebelled against talukdars and landlords, who demanded high rents and had to do begar or free labour.

• Tribal people revolted against the enclosure of large forest tracts by the British government, which left them without a livelihood as well as with traditional rights.

• Plantation workers desired freedom to move about and retain links with the villages they came from.

• At the time, all three believed that Gandhi Raj would come with the Non-Cooperation Movement, and this would mark an end to their sorrows. Thus, they joined the anti-colonial struggle.

2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Solution

• Gandhi on January 31, 1930, sent a letter to the Viceroy Irwin, consisting of 11 demands. There were some demands that appealed to a general audience and others were specific and addressed to various classes: industrialists, peasants, etc.

• The idea was to make the demands for independence wide-ranging so that all classes of Indian society could identify with them. Everyone had to be brought together in a united campaign. But the most unusual demand of all was for the abolition of the salt tax.

• The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance because it was done in revolt against a commodity-salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production were two examples of oppression.

• The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufactured salt by boiling seawater. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Solution

I participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement which was called by Gandhiji. It was an inspiring experience for me to take care of injured protesters in the baton-charge. It felt like taking care of my own brother. I was filled with nationalistic fervor. It was the most memorable and proud phase of my life. I was adamant from the start that British would have to leave our country and I took this as a proud moment.

4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

Solution

Political leaders disagreed about the idea of separate electorates because of differing opinions.

Many dalit leaders began organizing themselves, demanding a separate electorate so that they could have equal representation in legislative councils. They believed that if their issues were properly addressed, then the social disabilities would go away. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organized the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. Gandhiji believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.

After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their worry about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under domination of Hindu majority.

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