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Chapter 3 Water Resources Class 10 Geography NCERT Solutions
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’.
(a) A region with high annual rainfall.
(b) A region having high annual rainfall and large population.
(c) A region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
(d) A region having low rainfall and low population.
(a) Not suffering from water scarcity
(b) Suffering from water scarcity
(c) Suffering from water scarcity
(d) Not suffering from water scarcity
(ii) Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multipurpose river projects?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow help to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood
(iii) Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Indira Gandhi Canal.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense population and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers affect the river’s natural flow causing poor sediment flow.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline on account of high water availability due to Rajasthan Canal.
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
Upon use of water, it primarily enters the sea in the form of water vapour. This water vapour then enters the hydrological cycle, which replenishes freshwater through precipitation.
(ii) What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Shortage in the availability of usable water resource is known as water scarcity. Overuse and often misuse is leading to scarcity of this valuable resource. Hence, many countries and regions around the globe suffer from water scarcity.
Regions of low and erratic and uncertain rainfall face water scarcity. But water scarcity may be faced also in regions of high rainfall if the population is large. A large population means more requirement of water for producing more food, more consumption of water for domestic purposes and for expanding industries. These exhaust the available water resource and create water scarcity.
In some areas unequal access to water among different social groups creates water scarcity. Pollution of existing water bodies due to discharge of industrial effluents and wastes, spoil the available water and create water scarcity.
(iii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Advantages of multipurpose projects:
(i) Dams are built for irrigation.
(ii) They generate electricity and provide water.
(iii) They help in industrial development and controlling floods.
(iv) They help in recreation and navigation.
(v) They help in fish breeding. Many benefits are obtained simultaneously. So they are called Multi-purpose projects.
Disadvantages of multipurpose projects:
(i) They affect the natural flow of rivers.
(ii) This results in poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
(iii) It results in poorer habitats for aquatic life in the river.
(iv) They submerge the existing vegetation and lead to soil decomposition. It also causes a large-scale displacement of the local communities.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.
Through rainwater harvesting, groundwater is recharged by capturing and storing it. There are many low-cost techniques that are used in semi-arid regions such as Rajasthan. Underground tanks are used to store drinking water in Bikaner, Phalodi, and Barmer. A pipe connects the tankas to the sloping roofs of the houses. Water from the tankas is stored in the tankas for three to five years. In Rajasthan, rainwater, or Palar Pani, is considered the purest form of fresh water available.
(ii) Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.
Traditionally, rainwater was harvested in ancient India. Today, people still use these methods to conserve water, using rooftop rainwater harvesting systems to store drinking water. People built diversion channels in the Himalayas such as the Guls and Kuls to divert water. In Jaisalmer, Khadins and Johads were used to store rainwater. To preserve rainwater, underground tanks were attached to the sloping roofs of houses. Tankas were used to store drinking water.