NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

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With NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources, students can check their understanding of the material immediately after they finish reading a chapter. These are helpful in building a great foundation of concepts. The Chapter 5 Class 10 Geography NCERT Solutions are a complete and thorough guide to the entire syllabus. They provide detailed explanations for all the concepts. The solutions are prepared by experts who have years of experience in teaching.

Students are under immense pressure to perform well in their studies and secure a good future. Class 10 Social Science NCERT Solutions will prepare students to do better during this pressure. NCERT Solutions are a great way to analyze the problems and answering it with precision and the right concepts. It provides step by step solutions to all the questions present in the textbook.

Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Geography NCERT Solutions

1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following minerals are formed by the decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) Coal
(b) Bauxite
(c) Gold
(d) Zinc


(b) Bauxite

(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand, is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Mica
(c) Iron Ore
(d) Copper


(b) Mica

(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary Rocks
(b) Metamorphic Rocks
(c) Igneous Rocks
(d) None of the above


(a) Sedimentary Rocks

(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) Oil
(b) Uranium
(c) Thorium
(d) Coal


(c) Thorium

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.

a. Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals


Ferrous MineralsNon-Ferrous Minerals
Metallic minerals containing iron are called ferrous minerals.Metallic minerals that contain metals other than iron are non-ferrous minerals.
They account for about three-fourths of the total value of production of metallic minerals in India.India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory.
Iron ore, manganese, chromite, tungsten, nickel and cobalt are examples of ferrous minerals.Copper, lead, tin, bauxite, gold are examples of non-ferrous minerals as they do not contain iron.

b. Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy


Conventional Sources of EnergyNon-conventional Sources of Energy
Conventional sources of energy have been in use since time immemorial.Non-conventional sources have been put to use in the recent past.
Most of them, especially the fossil fuels are limited and exhaustible.They are inexhaustible, renewable resources.
They emit smoke and ash on burning and cause environmental pollution.They are environment friendly as they do not cause pollution.
As the supply fossil fuels are limited they are expensive.As they are flow resources, freely found in nature in abundance, they are less expensive.
Simple mining as well as modern technology are involved in their production.Advanced scientific technology is involved in its production.
Coal, mineral oil, natural gas, and hydel power are examples of conventional sources of energy.Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, biogas and energy from urban waste are examples of non-conventional sources of energy.

(ii) What is a mineral?


Mineral is a homogenous and a naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. Minerals range from the hardest which is diamond to the softest which is talc.

(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?


In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. Minerals like Tin, Copper, Zinc and Lead are obtained from veins and lodes.

(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?


Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. If we use these resources injudiciously, they won’t last long. Mineral formation and replenishment are very slow. In order to maintain our existence and to make our future generations’ lives easier, we must conserve mineral resources.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.


Coal is the prime source of energy. It is used as a raw material in iron and steel, chemical and thermal industries. India has two types of coal fields:

(i) Gondwana coal fields (98%): These belong to the Gondwana period (200 million years ago). Nearly 3/4th of coal deposits are found in the Damodar valley (Damuda series). Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valley also have coal deposits.

  • West Bengal: West Bengal has the oldest coal field of India at Raniganj. It covers an area of 1,267 sq. kms. Asansol and Durgapur are steel centres of West Bengal.
  • Jharkhand and Bihar: These two states produce 50% of coal in India. The major coal fields of Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura and Daltonganj are found in the Damodar valley. Coking coal from this coal field is supplied to the steel centres of Jamshedpur and Bokaro.
  • Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh: These have the Son valley coal fields of Sohagpur, Korba, Rampur, Tatapani and Singrauli.
  • Singareni in Andhra Pradesh: Talcher in the Mahanadi valley and Chanda-Wardha coal fields of Maharashtra.

(ii) Tertiary coalfields (2%): This includes lignite deposits called ‘brown coal, which is of low quality.

(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?


Solar Energy is the most abundant, cheapest and inexhaustible source of energy produced from sunlight. Solar cookers are used in cooking food. Solar power is being used for cooking, water heating, water desalination, space heating and crop drying. Solar energy is going to be the energy of the future. Reasons:

(i) India is a tropical country. It receives bright sunshine throughout the year.
(ii) Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.
(iii) The largest solar plant of India is at Madhapar (Bhuj). It is used to sterilise milk cans.
(iv) Rural households will save fire wood and dung cakes.
(v) India does not have adequate resources of coal and petroleum. So we must develop solar power.

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