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Chapter 4 Agriculture Class 10 Geography NCERT Solutions
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.
(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
Tea is an important beverage crop of India. India is the leading producer as well as exporter of tea in the world. It grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climatic conditions. It needs 200–30°C temperature throughout the year. It requires an annual rainfall of 150 cm to 300 cm. It needs a frost free climate. It needs deep, fertile well drained soils rich in humus and organic matter. Tea is a labour-intensive crop and requires cheap and abundant skilled labour.
(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
Rice is the staple foodcrop of a majority of the people in India. It is grown on the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions. West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and some parts of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and eastern Madhya Pradesh are the major areas of rice production. In Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan, rice is grown as commercial crop with the help of irrigation.
(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
The various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers are Minimum Support Price policy, provision for crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, land ceiling, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme.
(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
The cultivation of food crops has gradually been replaced by the cultivation of fruits, vegetables and oilseeds, which has led to a reduction in net area sown for food crops. As a result of competition for land between agriculture and non-agricultural uses, such as housing, etc., net sown area has decreased.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
The government has taken various steps since independence to increase agricultural production to meet the needs of its growing population.
Collectivisation, consolidation of holding, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc, were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence. Land reform is the collective term for these institutional reforms introduced to make farming economic and was the main focus of our First Five Years Plan.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Government of India introduced agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture such as Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood). Green revolution encouraged farmers to use high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers and manures etc. to increase production. However, this was limited to few selected areas.
In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms. Some important step taken were:
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease
- Establishment of Grameen banks
- Cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
There are also many facilities provided by the government to protect farmers and raise production. These are:
- Kissan Credit Card (KCC),
- Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)
- Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
- Minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.
Globalisation is present at the time of colonisation. During the British period, cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries. Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges. The agricultural products of India are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries. The green revolution is under controversies in recent times as it is being alleged that it has caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity. Today, focus is on “gene revolution”, which includes genetic engineering. Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops. This will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously.