Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Important Questions Class 10 History will provide you with the most important questions that Class 10 students should consider in order to gain high marks in the examinations. These Questions are the most popular and frequently asked questions that are helpful in class preparation and learning.
It is an effective way to reinforce what students have learned and prepare for a quiz by building their confidence. These Chapter 2 Class 10 History Extra questions will require a certain level of skill on the part of the student, so they should be prepared before hand.
Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Important Questions and Answers Class 10 History
Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Very Short Answer Questions (1 Mark)
1. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. He had come back from South Africa.
2. Why were nai-dhobi bandhs organised by the panchayats?
The nai-dhobi bandhs were organised in the panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of barbers and washermen.
3. Who financed the defence expenditure of World War I?
War was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
4. Where did a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s and who was their leader?
This spread in Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh and their leader was Alluri Sitaram Raju.
5. Why were people in rural areas angry with Britishers?
There was forced recruitment of soldiers in rural areas. Crops failed resulting in acute storage of food, accompanied by influenza epidemic.
6. Who formed the Swaraj party within the Congress and what were their objectives?
The Swaraj Party was formed by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru to argue for a return to council politics.
7. What was Rowlatt Act of 1919?
It gave the British government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
8. Why did Kheda farmers protest against Britishers?
Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and demanded that revenue collection be released.
9. How did people react to Rowlatt Act?
Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British started arresting the nationalists.
10. Why did Mahatma Gandhi join Khilafat issue?
Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
11. State the significance of the Lahore session of the Congress.
In the Lahore session of the Congress, the Congress formalised the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence and also declare 26 January 1930 as the Independence day of India.
12. Why did General Dyer fire on innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?
His object was, as Dyer declared, was to ‘produce a moral effect’ and to create the feeling of terror and awe in the minds of Satyagrahis.
13. Why was the Congress reluctant to include the workers’ demands?
The Congress were reluctant to include the workers’ demands because it felt that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.
14. What resolution was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?
At the Calcutta session of the congress in September 1920, Gandhiji convinced other leaders of the need to start a Non-cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj.
15. What decision was made in Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920?
At the congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non- cooperation Movement was adopted.
16. What were the apprehensions of the Muslim leaders when the Civil Disobedience movement started?
Many Muslim leaders expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that their culture and identity would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
17. Why were Council elections not boycotted in Madras?
The Council Elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the justice party, the party of non-Brahmans felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power- something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
18. Why did the relationship between the poor peasant and Congress always remain uncertain?
This was because the Congress was apprehensive that might upset the peasants and landlords and thus, was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places.
19. Who were the two main leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
Two young brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started Khilafat Movement.
20. Why did people start buying mill cloth instead of Khadi?
Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy the Khadi cloth.
21. What were the demands of peasants in Awadh?
The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
22. Why was Mahatma Gandhi against ‘Separate Electorates’ for Dalits?
This was because he felt that separate electorates would slow down the process of their integration into a society.
23. How was ‘Oudh Kisan Sabha’ formed?
In June 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh, talking to the villagers and trying to understand their grievances. By October, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others.
24. How did women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Many high-caste women participated in the movement in the urban areas and in the rural areas these were from rich peasant households. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women and thus participated enthusiastically.
25. What did freedom mean to plantation workers in Assam?
For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space, in which they were enclosed and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
26. When did the identity of India come to be closely associated with the image of Bharat Mata and who created this image first?
This was in the twentieth century and it was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
27. What action was taken by the tribals of Gudem Hills in their movement?
The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
28. What did the nationalist histories urge the readers to do?
The nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under the British Rule.
29. Who formed Swaraj Party?
C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
30. Why were the business groups no longer enthusiastic after the failure of the 2nd Round Table Conference?
This was because they were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the Congress.
31. Why was countryside in turmoil by 1930?
As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.
32. Why was Simon Commission rejected in India?
The problem was that the commission did not have a single Indian member. They were all British.
Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Short Answer Questions (3 Marks)
1. Why martial law was imposed in Punjab during the month of April in 1919?
(i) Martial law was imposed in Punjab because Rowlatt Act was introduced by the British Government. Against this act rallies were organized in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops closed down.
(ii) British Government decided to clamp down on the nationalist leaders. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar. Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
(iii) On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoke widespread attacks on banks post offices and railway stations. Due to this martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
2. Why did Gandhiji decide to call of the Non-Cooperation Movement?
(i) The movement was turning out to be violent in many places.
(ii) He thought that Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles. This was with reference of the incident in Chauri-Chaura, where twenty-two policemen were brutally killed after they had fired on a political procession.
(iii) There had been disturbances in Madras and Calcutta also. Thus, the country wasn’t ready for mass struggles and Gandhi prevailed in the Congress Working Committee to call off the movement.
3. Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Explain.
(i) Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. So people could not boycott mill cloth for very long.
(ii) Similarly boycotting British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative national institutions to fulfil the educational needs.
(iii) The students and teachers trickled to government schools. The lawyers joined government
4. Describe the movement led by plantation workers in Assam.
(i) In Assam, Plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without permission. (Under the Island Emigration Act, 1859).
(ii) When they heard of the non- cooperation movement, the workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and moved to home/villages.
(iii) However, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
(iv) For these workers Swaraj meant the right to move freely in and out of the plantations.
5. Elaborate the contribution of Alluri Sita Ram Raju in the nationalist movement of India.
(i) Alluri Sita Ram Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers: he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots.
(ii) Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God. Rajju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non Cooperation Movement, and persuaded people to wear Khadhi and giving up drinking.
(iii) But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.
(iv) The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj. Raju was captured and executed in 1924 and over the time became a folk hero.
6. How did the Dalit leaders organise themselves to solve the problems of their community?
(i) Dalits organised themselves and demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate that would choose Dalit members for the legislative councils.
(ii) They thought that political empowerment would solve the problems of their social disabilities.
(iii) Therefore, in Maharashtra and Nagpur regions, Dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited where their organisation was quite strong.
7. What were the methods used by peasants of Awadh to achieve their goal? Explain.
(i) In many places nai-dhobi bandhs were organized by panchayats to deprive landlords of the service of even barbers and washer men.
(ii) The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
(iii) Some peasants denied doing beggar-work without at landlords’ farms without any payment.
(iv) As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted.
8. How did Mahatma Gandhi organize Satyagraha in various places in India?
(i) In 1917 he travelled in Champaran, Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against oppressive plantation system.
(ii) In 1919 he organized Satyagraha to support peasants of Kheda in Gujarat.
(iii) In 1918 he went to Ahmedabad to organize this movement amongst cotton mill workers.
(iv) In 1919 he launched Satyagraha against Rowlatt act.
9. How did the people belonging to different community, religions or language develop a sense of collective being?
(i) This came through the experience of united struggles.
(ii) There were also a varied processed through which nationalism developed in people.
(iii) These were history, fiction, folklore, songs, popular prints and symbols-these all developed a sense of nationalism in the people.
10. Describe the militant guerrilla movement in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh.
(i) The colonial Govt. had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering forests to graze their cattle or to collect fuel wood or fruits.
(ii) They lost their livelihoods and their traditional rights were being denied. The government forced the tribal peasants to contribute begar for road building.
(iii) As a result the hill people revolted. The movement was led by Allusi Sita Ram Raju. He was believed to be an incarnation of God.
(iv) The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla war fare for achieving Swaraj. Raju was captured and executed in 1924, and overtime a folk hero.
11. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyze the reasons.
(i) Congress wanted to include the demands of the masses as a whole and not a particular group or class.
(ii) If the demand of the workers were included, then industrialists would get offended. The industrialists were supporting the Congress financially. The Congress did not want to alienate the industrialists and create anti-imperialist feelings.
(iii) A big portion of the Congress membership and funding came from industrialists and small businessmen.
12. What is the significance of the Lahore Session of Congress in 1929?
(i) In December 1929, the 44th session of Congress was held at Lahore under the leadership of Nehru. Congress declared Poorna swaraj or complete independence as its aim.
(ii) It was decided to launch the Civil Disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhiji.
(iii) It was declared that 26th January was to be celebrated as the Independence Day all over the country.
(iv) The Congress tricolour Flag was hoisted and people took pledge to struggle for complete independence.
13. Mention the features of the flag which was designed by Gandhiji?
In 1921 Gandhiji had designed the swaraj flag.
(i) It was a tricolor flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(ii) Tricolors were-red, green and white.
(iv) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
14. What is separate electorate? Why do you think Gandhiji was against the demand of separate electorate by B R Ambedkar?
Separate electorates are usually demanded by minorities who feel it would otherwise be difficult for them to get fair representation in government. Separate electorate for Dalits means that Dalits will choose their separate leader by separate elections for Dalits.
Gandhiji was against the demand of separate electorate of Dr BR Ambedkar because he believes that separate electorates for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organizations locally.
Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Long Answer Questions (5 Marks)
1. How did the idea of India nationalism develop through a movement to revive Indian folklore?
(i) Nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and toured villages to gather folk songs and legends which they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
(ii) It was necessary to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover the national identity and restore a sense of pride of the past.
(iii) Example, Rabindranath Tagore, in Bengal, began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movements for folk revival.
(iv) Example, Natesa Sastri, in Madras, published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil Folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature i.e. ‘the most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thoughts and characteristics.
2. Identify the reasons that why Muslim Political organizations in India werelukewarm in their response to the civil disobedience Movement.?
(i) Some of the Muslim political organizations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) After the decline of the Non- Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the congress.
(iii) From the mid-1920s the congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist group like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(iv) As relation between Hindus and Muslims worsened, each community organized religious processions with militant fervor, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
(v) Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
3. Discuss the Salt March to make it clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism?
(i) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. Salt was something consumed by rich and poor alike, and it was one of the essential items of food. The tax on the salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
(ii) In Jan 1930, Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin demanding the abolition of the salt tax. Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum to the government and the Viceroy was not willing to fulfill it. So Gandhiji started the famous salt march on 12th March 1930.
(iii) Began with the Dandi March on 12th March 1930. About 78 ashram members left Sabarmati for Dandi, a village in Gujarat on the seacoast to break the salt law. They walked for 24 days and about 10 miles a day. On 6th April he reached Dandhi and violated the law by manufacturing Salt by boiling sea water.
(iv) The people not only refused to cooperate with the govt. but also broke the law. They demonstrated in front of the govt. salt factories and started manufacturing salt. Foreign clothes were boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue or chowkidari taxes and village officials resigned. Many leaders were arrested and newspapers were banned.
(v) In the North western Frontier Province the movt was led by Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan. When he was arrested people started demonstrating on streets of Peshawar. There was lot of violence and many people were killed.
(vi) In Sholapur, industrial workers attacked police posts, municipal buildings, and railway stations. The frightened government adopted harsh measures like firing and lathi charge. Peaceful Satyagrahis were attacked, women and children beaten and about one lakh people were arrested.
4. “Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore? Support the statement with suitable examples?
(i) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement a revive India folklore.
(ii) In the late nineteenth century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages together folk songs and legends.
(iii) It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
(iv) In Bengal Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival.
(v) In madras Natesa Shastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, the Folklore of Southern India.
(vi) He believed that folklore was national literature; it was most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thought and characteristics.
5. Why was Gandhiji decided to call off the Rowlett Satyagraha?
(i) Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against Rowlett Act (1919).
(ii) On 13 April the famous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place. As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowd took to the streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, classes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
(iii) The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorize people. Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salute to all sahibs.
(iv) People were flogged and village around Gujranwala in Punjab (now in Pakistan) were bombed.
(v) Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called of the movement.
6. How the plantation workers of Assam understand Mahatma Gandhiji and the notion of swaraj?
(i) Workers too had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of swaraj.
(i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
(iii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed the Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
(iv) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.