Modern Indian History

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Modern Indian History is the story of formation of present India. There are many aspects and many views regarding Modern Indian History. The start of modern Indian History is considered from the rise of European Settlement in India. Due heavy influence of Arabs, Europeans discovered a Sea route to India by passing Arabs. Portuguese were first to come in India. After that Dutch, French, British arrived. British gradually from trade started controlling administration of India by its different polices like Doctrine of Lapse. The British Parliament started passing acts for British East India Company.

The revolt of 1857 was though suppressed but left an impact. The British crown was direct ruler of India. British had different advantages from its colonial rule in India. It got resources, trade as well men to work. It built British Indian Army which was having more soldiers than British Soldiers. Though, in order to control administration they built communication. They brought railways, and telegraph services. But, they drained Indian economy and demotivated Indian textile mills and handicrafts. The condition of peasants and farmers was very bad. Revolts happened, suppressed. There was lack of unity in several such revolts.

Then era of Gandhian Nationalist movement came. Gandhiji tried to unit India in Nationalist struggle. India got Independence and country was divided in the name of religion. The seed to divide Hindu and Muslim was sown by British in 1909 when they proposed separate electorate for Muslims. This was there divide and rule policy whose existence can be found in Indian Polity even today.

Apart from British rule, Modern History also cover part of pre-British era. The era after death of Aurangzeb and decline of Mughal Empire. Rise of Marathas, Sikhs, Nizams of Hyderabad, Bhopal, Bengal, Awadh, states come under. India also faced attacks by Afghans like Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali. Marathas fight third battle of Panipat with Afghans and defeated. The war stopped Marathas expansion.

It is also important to study about socio-economic condition of Indian in this era. The great Indian Social reforms fought against social evils like Sati Pratha, child marriage. The Universities and schools were established for enlightenment.

1. Sources of Modern History
-Archival Materials
-Central Government Archives
-Judicial Records
-Archive Materials of Colonial rule
-Biographies
-Travel Accounts
-Newspapers and Journals
-Literature

2. Europeans Settlements in India
-Initial Indian trade of India with Europeans
-Portuguese Invasion
-Dutch settlements
-English Settlement
-French Settlements
-Danish Settlements
-Swedish Settlements

3. India Just Before British Colonial Rule
-Decline of Mughal
-Emergence of New States
– Marathas
-Hyderabad
-Awadh
-Bengal
-Jats
-Sikhs
-Social and Economic Conditions

4. Expansion of British Power
-Beginning of British Era
– Bengal-British Conflict
.Battle of Plassey
.Battle of Buxar
Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim
-British Conquest of Mysore
. Rise of Haider Ali
. First Anglo-Mysore War
.Second Anglo-Mysore war
.Third Anglo-Mysore War
.Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
.Mysore After Tipu

-Anglo Maratha Conflict
. First Anglo Maratha war
.Treaty of Salbai
.Second Anglo Maratha War
.Third Anglo Maratha War
.Causes for the defeat of the Marathas

-Conquest of the Punjab
.First Anglo Sikh War
.Second Anglo Sikh War
-Extension of British Paramountcy Through
-Conquest of Sindh

5. Initial Structure of Company Rule
-The Regulation Act
-Pitts Indi Act
-The Charters Acts
-Administration and Institution

6. Economic Impact of British Rule
-Land Revenue
-Impact on Agriculture
-Drain of Wealth
-Manufacturing

7. Services Started by British Rule
-Railways
-Telegraph

8. Social and Cultural Development
9. Socio-Religious Reforms
10. Resistance against British Rule
-Resistance movements by Peasants
-Resistance movement in different parts of India
-Muslim Reaction
-Other Revolts Before 1957
-First war of Independence
– Impacts of Revolt of 1857
-Reorganization done after 1857.

11. Earlier Indian Nationalism
– Factors of rise of Nationalism
– Formation of Regional Groups and Associations
– Formation of Indian National Congress
– Moderate Phase
– Extremist Phase
– Some Important Acts and Resolutions
.Indian Council Act 1909
.Home rule movement
.Lucknow Pact
.Government of India act 1919

12. Gandhian Nationalism
– Gandhi’s Political Activation in South Africa
– Beginning of Gandhian Era in India
– Ideas of Gandhi
– Initial Sataygrah Movements
. Champaran Satyagraph
.Kheda Satyagrah
.Ahmedabad Mill Worker Satyagrah

-Rowlett Satyagrah
-Non-Cooperation Movement
-Simon Commission
-Lahore Session
-Civil Disobedience Movement
-Quit India

13. Other Nationalist Movements in era 1919-47
14. Economic Developments Between 1914 and 1945
15. Freedom and Partition
16. India as Nation

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