Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve organizational goals. There are some basic features of management that are essential for any manager to be successful. These features include goal setting, planning, decision making, leading, and controlling. You will get to know about features or characteristics of management in detail here.
Management is Goal Oriented Activity
In Haynes and Massie’s view, management would be difficult, if not impossible, without objectives. All managerial activities have certain objectives that can be expressed or implied. These objectives are determined by the top administration. A group’s efforts are directed toward achieving certain predetermined objectives. Management is responsible for establishing and achieving these objectives. Management’s success is generally measured by how well they accomplish these objectives.
“Effective management is always management by objectives”.Theo Haimann,
Management is Concerned with Group Efforts
Organizations are formed primarily for the purpose of achieving certain objectives that can be easily accomplished by a group. As a result, no individual can satisfy all of his desires on his own. As a result, he joins together with fellow beings and works in organized groups to accomplish what he cannot do on his own. Management always prefers group efforts. According to Lawrence Appley, it is the “Efforts of the people”, but according to J.L. Massie, it is the “Cooperative group”. Group efforts are planned, organized, coordinated, directed, and controlled by management, not by individuals.
Management is a Human Activity as well as a Process of Organized Activity
Management involves the development of people rather than the direction of things. It is concerned with human organizations, not animals. Furthermore, animals are trained rather than managed. Management is a process of organized activity, with the key element being the ‘Man’, as personnel are the core resource and method of operation of all businesses. It is concerned with the efficient use of resources. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are all interrelated elements in this process.
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Management is Dynamic
The role of management must be performed continuously in an ever-changing business environment. Management is not a static activity. It is concerned with the alteration of the environment itself in order to ensure the success of the enterprise. It adapts itself to the new changes in society. It introduces innovations in its styles and methods. To adopting innovative changes, management also introduced modern developments in management methodology such as “Management of Change”.
Management involves Decision Making
In managerial processes, decision making is at the core of everything. Managers determine the courses of action, strategies, policies, and programmes through decision making. says,
“Whatever a manager does, he does through making decisions”.Drucker
With the use of human beings and other resources, management is a distinct process that identifies and accomplishes stated objectives. Other than activities, techniques, and procedures, management includes the functions like planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, motivating, and controlling.
Concerned with Managing Effective and Efficient Use of Resources
An effective use is one that produces results, whereas an efficient use produces such results with the least amount of resources possible. The goal of management is to optimize productivity per person or resource unit. Thus, producing more with the resources available means maximizing productivity.
Management is largely a social process because it involves the interrelationships between individuals at work. It involves getting things done through others. When it comes to managing people, it directs, coordinates, and regulates their efforts so that the desired results can be achieved. In this sense, management is a social process. As such, it is responsible for making the most of scarce resources to benefit the entire community.
Management is Pervasive at all levels
Management activity occurs at all levels of an organization, e.g. top level, middle level, and supervisory level. Top level, middle level, and supervisory level managers perform the same managerial tasks.
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Universal in Character
Any organization that has human activity requires management, since the concept of management is universal and its principles and techniques are used all over the world regardless of development level.
“Be it a case of commerce, politics, religion, war in every concern there is management function to be performed.”Henry Fayol
“We are all managers of our own lives, and the practice of management is found in every facet of human activity.”Geoge Terry
Management is an Art of Getting Things Done
Koontz and O’Donnell define management as the art of managing people in formally organized groups to get things done. An effective manager does not perform operating tasks on his own; rather, he has the authority to do them through others. The moment he has an understanding of responsibility for accomplishment, he is a manager.
Management is a System of Authority
Managerial functions are considered to be based on authority. Management is a rule-making and rule-enforcing body, so it cannot function without authority. Authority is the power to compel men to perform a specific task. Authority flows from top to bottom across all levels of the managerial hierarchy. People working at different levels of the organization are responsible for different functions. This system is known as the managerial hierarchical system of authority. In modern management, authority, authoritarianism, humanitarianism and moral worth all interact to create personal power.
In modern industrial society, management is a separate class of managerial personnel that is quite different from workers and capitalists. It is a class of administrators and planners. Managers do not have to be owners. Management, Labour, and Capital are three separate entities in modern society.
Art as well as Science
The principles of management are universal in nature, which makes management a science. To make the best use of management science, the art of the manager is essential. Management science relies on the individual skills of the manager. Thus, management is both science and art.
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Management is invisible force
The management presence is visible through the results such as improved quality and increased output. According to Terry, management is an unseen force that is intangible. As a result of its efforts, it is often evident in adequate work output, a healthy work environment, and employee satisfaction.
Management is a Profession
It is an emerging and young profession that has a structured and specialized body of knowledge, prescribed qualifications, a service-oriented goal, and a code of conduct. As a discipline or subject, it can be taught separately. As large-scale businesses increase, managers are now in charge of managing them.