Fourth Anglo Mysore War Modern History Notes for UPSC
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War took place in 1798–99 between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company. With the end of the Third Mysore war, Tipu Sultan’s power and position was considerably weakened whereas English gained considerable prestige. Tipu Sultan suffered a severe defeat during the Third Anglo-Mysore War. He had to surrender half of his territories and pay a heavy war indemnity. You will learn about the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in this article which will help you prepare for the UPSC and other government exams.
Background of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
In the aftermath of his defeat, Tipu Sultan felt humiliated and determined to avenge himself on the Nizam and the Marathas for failing to stand by him.
After the treaty, Tipu’s first duty was to pay 50% of the unpaid war indemnity and free his two sons held hostage. He did so very quickly and freed his sons, then prepared for confrontation with the company.
Tipu’s plan was to repair all the forts which were damaged during the last war so that Mysore could be protected in the future. Also, after repairing and fortifying Srirangapatnam, he increased the strength of his army and cavalry, and trained and equipped them well. He suppressed the revolt of all rebel chiefs..
Causes of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
To strengthen his military and financial resources, Tipu sent emissaries to Paris (France) again in 1796. In 1797, he received a French emissary to confirm French support in Mauritius. A Jacobin club was established in Srirangapatinam and the flag of the French Republic was hoisted to mark the ties established between the French and the Sultan of Mysore.
Lord Wellesley entered into an alliance with Nizam of Hyderabad in September, 1798. The Marathas, however, did not respond. Even so, the Governor General assured the Marathas that half of the territory captured by Tipu would go to the Peshwa. As a result, the Company won the friendship of Nizam and the neutrality of the Marathas. As in the previous war, Tipu faced the Company alone. The French, however, cooperated with him and trained his army.
In 1798, Lord Wellesley took over as governor-general. An imperialist at heart, Wellesley was anxious about Tipu’s growing affinity with the French and sought to destroy or subordinate him according to the Subsidiary Alliance system. In 1799, Tipu Sultan rejected Wellesley’s proposal and the British declared the fourth Anglo-Mysore war.
Events of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
In March 1799, the English attacked Mysore from two sides. The English army led by General Harris and Arthur Wellesley marched from Vellore to Mysore. On March 7, 1799 AD, a second army led by General Stuart attacked Mysore from the west. Stuart defeated Tipu at Sedaseer and Harris at Malvelly. As a result, he retreated to his capital city of Srirangapatnam, but the English forces besieged him on April 7, 1799 AD.
The Sultan decided to surrender after some resistance, and sued for peace, but the English offered a peace treaty with certain terms that he did not accept, so he continued the war. On May 4, 1799 AD, the English breached Srirangapatnam’s fort. Tipu Sultan died in defense.
Results of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Upon surrendering to the English, Tipu Sultan’s son and successor was incarcerated in Vellore with other members of his family. Mysore’s Hindu Raja, who was denied his Gaddi by Tipu Sultan, was restored his Gaddi, and one Purniya, a puppet in the Company’s hands, was chosen as his Regent.
Upon being brought on board the Gaddi, the minor prince had to sign a subsidiary alliance agreement with the Company, which made him dependent upon it. He agreed to keep British forces in Mysore as well as to pay Rs. 21 lakhs a year for the maintenance of these forces.
The treaty also stipulates that the state of Mysore will not engage foreigners in civil or military employment. It will also not directly negotiate with foreign countries.
In the case of a state that fails to handle its affairs properly, the British have the right to intervene. Thus, the Company had the right to intervene in Mysore’s internal affairs, ending its independence.
Due to the fact that the Marathas were offered some territories on certain conditions that they did not find acceptable, the Company divided the territories conquered between the Nizam and the English. Nizam of Hyderabad received Gooti, Gurumkonda except for its forts and Chittaldurg districts. These territories were already in the Hyderabad state territory. Kannada, Bainad, Coimbatore and Darapuram were granted to the English in the South West. Srirangapatnam and two other districts were given to the Company in the east. Other territories were given to the state’s boy ruler.