A disaster management programme is the government’s response to calamities. It provides financial and other supports in times of disasters. A disaster management programme consist of pre-disaster preparations, disaster response and post-disaster recovery. The most significant disaster management problems are the destruction of property and man-made disasters like wars, riots, and natural disasters. When a disaster happens there are many factors involved that cause the destruction of properties to different degrees such as earth quake, weather condition like floods, drought, tsunami etc.
There are two types of disasters namely natural disasters and man made disasters. Natural disasters happen by chance like earthquakes and floods whereas man made disasters are caused intentionally. Man made disasters include war, terrorism, natural disasters, and crime. For example, the Syrian Civil War has been a man made disaster that has caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in Syria.
Natural disasters are events that are beyond human control like earthquakes, floods etc. It is not the fault of any person or group that nature has such events. Many experts of disasters say that natural disasters have become more frequent in the past decades and there is no way to predict when they might occur. However, scientists know what factors make natural disasters inevitable.
Earthquakes can be caused by natural causes like the shifting of tectonic plates or human activities such as fracking. In some places around the world, seismic activity is so intense that it can trigger tsunamis which have the power to devastate coastal cities. The most damaging effects of an earthquake are caused by the shaking and collapse of buildings. The earthquake can occur in any place on earth, but it usually occurs at the boundary between two tectonic plates.
The consequences of an earthquake can be devastating, with over 600,000 people killed and many more injured in the United States alone. In Japan, the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995 delivered a deadly blow with a death toll of over 6,000 and $300 billion worth of damage. In Chile, they are currently battling aftereffects of a 7.8 magnitude earthquake that killed at least 700 people and caused significant damage to the southern part of Santiago.
The epicentre of the Bhuj earthquake, which struck on 28 December 2001, was about 9 kilometers southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka, Kutch District. The ground shook for seven seconds and people were frightened by its intensity. The earthquake caused significant damage in the villages of Chobari and Bhuj. There were at least 25 aftershocks following the main event, including another major quake of magnitude 6.2 on 4 November 2017.
Earthquake mitigation strategies are used in order to prevent buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. In many cases, these strategies include designing the building in such a way that its ability to withstand stress and strain is increased.
Flooding can occur when a river overflows its banks and flows over adjacent land, when a dam or levee fails, or when an aquifer is suddenly filled by groundwater. Floods are usually classified as surface water floods (when the water rises to the level of the land), that may become dangerous if they enter populated areas due to their speed and force.
Flooding can be caused by a number of different events, including natural disasters, human actions or neglect, and changes in the weather. Flooding can be directly related to a natural phenomenon, such as heavy rains that cause water to overflow rivers or streams, or indirectly related to development, such as when increased urbanization leads to gradually increasing runoff and silt deposits.
The frequency and intensity of floods, which are increasing in number due to climate change, can lead to a significant increase in the death tolls. As a result of floods, human and livestock death due to drowning, serious injuries and outbreak of epidemics like diarrhea, cholera, jaundice or viral infections are common problems faced in flood-affected areas. Many people may also suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, resulting in an increased risk of suicide among them.
Flood mitigation strategies are important not only to protect life and property threatened by flooding, but they also reduce the cost of building new roads. This includes infrastructure such as bridges and sewer mains.
Watercourses which pass through significant settlement areas should be properly configured and lined with concrete. One of the most important aspects to consider is the height of the watercourse. If it is greater than 3 meters in height, then use a flood barrier system. People will be discouraged from building near waterways and bridges because they can become dangerous.
Volcanic eruptions happen when magma reaches the surface and causes violent explosions that release hot gases and ash. Lava flows or volcanic mudflows are rivers of fluid lava, while pyroclastic flows are dense currents of pulverized rock fragments and volcanic gas.
A volcanic disaster can unfold in a number of ways, ranging from simply releasing lava and gases to an explosive eruption. The latter forms large volumes of pyroclastic flows which are extremely hazardous, reaching temperatures as high as 1,050 degrees Celsius (1,800 Fahrenheit) with suspended dust clouds that pollute the air and contaminate land and water.
A volcanic eruption can have a number of different effects, including creating hazards such as tsunamis and damaging buildings. Because the weather is not always predictable, it is important to plan ahead for any potential disaster.
Volcanic disasters can occur rapidly and without warning, so communities that live nearby should be prepared by developing a community warning system. Through this system, people within the community can take precautionary measures when they notice abnormal activity. They can also receive warnings of potential volcanic disasters in their area and learn how to prepare for them.
A tsunami is caused by a tsunami waves, which are the result of plate tectonics, a geological phenomenon consisting of one or more large underwater earthquakes. The resultant displacement of water can mix ocean water with fresh water, resulting in an increase in sea level and flooding on coastlines. The height of the water is typically about 10 feet and it can travel at speeds up to 500 kilometers per hour.
Tsunamis are a very dangerous, destructive and powerful natural phenomena that can be caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, or other events. In general, tsunamis travel at the speed of sound or waves of a tsunami can reach heights of about 300 feet.
The tsunami of December 26, 2004 was one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. It killed more than 240,000 people, displaced over 2 million people, and badly damaged or destroyed hundreds of thousands of homes. The tsunami was caused by a 9.3 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Sumatra in western Indonesia that triggered a series of devastating waves.
Landslides are caused by disturbances in the natural stability of a slope. These events can range from minor changes in soil types, vegetation, water levels and other variables. The most significant causes of landslides include:
- A change in slope angle that exceeds the capability of built-in slopes to accommodate.
- An increase in bedrock relief more than 10 feet.
- Erosion or collapse at one end of a steep slope removes important support.
Landslides are known to happen in areas where there has been extensive human-induced disturbance, such as areas of urban sprawl or mining activity. They occur most often during the rainy season when the ground is wet and unstable. Landslides also happen when heavy snow falls on a slope, creating compaction and less friction to hold the snow in place. When this happens, the weight of the accumulated snow becomes too great for the slopes to hold up and suddenly a slope can collapse onto a lower section of land.
A cyclone is an area of low atmospheric pressure with rotating winds. These winds form a closed circulation around the center of the storm, which is its low-pressure area. If a weather system moves over water and the sea temperature is warmer than the air temperature, then warm moist air will rise and cold dry air will sink. This causes winds to rotate counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere, as Earth’s landmasses block much of this motion.
Cyclones have been responsible for some of the deadliest storms ever recorded. Cyclone Sidr in 2007 killed 138,000 people in Bangladesh and may have caused as many as $14 billion in destruction.
Cyclone Tracy was the most destructive tropical cyclone to ever hit Australia. It was a category 5 storm that killed 65 people, caused $A2.7 billion in damage, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes and businesses across the state of Victoria.
Cyclone mitigation strategies usually consist of installing cyclone mitigation structures at pit head and providing bunkers that can be used as shelters. This includes designing the project to protect against impact pressure by moving loads, designing it with a base bearing capacity that is beyond design wind speed, and ensuring that all shelters are independently ventilated.
Man made Disasters
Road accidents are due to reckless driving, untrained drivers and poor maintenance of roads and vehicles. The most common accidents are car accidents where the driver is at fault. Other accidents such as motorcycle crashes happen when a driver does not take care their speed or their bike loses traction on a wet road. These types of car collisions can result in severe injury or even death for the victim.
Currently, road accidents will affect one in six people in the world and if this number continues to rise, the number of deaths from road accidents will also increase.
The fire accident is defined as “a sudden, violent event that results in injury, death, property damage or a combination thereof.” The disaster can be caused by many different things including arson and electrical malfunctions.
Fires can be an incredibly dangerous threat to forests and wildlife because they spread quickly and cause intense damage in a short amount of time. In cities, fires break out in homes, hotels, buildings specially warehouses, and factories.
Terrorism refers to violence against non-combatants in order to achieve some political or ideological aim. Terrorism has been around since the beginning of recorded history, but it has never been more prevalent and more deadly than in recent years. There are many different types of terrorist activity, such as bombing, hijacking, kidnapping and assassination.
The use of terrorism as an instrument of war is typically associated with groups seeking to achieve political goals and is most often used by non-state actors. Terrorism has more recently been characterized as a form of asymmetric warfare, involving deliberate attacks on civilians or civilian property that are intended to affect a larger number of people than the terrorists themselves.
Biological disasters are caused by various effects, such as the release of chemicals, radioactivity or heat. These events can cause a lot of damage to people and the environment if they aren’t taken care of properly. The most notorious biological disaster is the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident which was triggered by an equipment malfunction in 1986.
An epidemic is an outbreak of a particular infectious disease that spreads through populations, often causing widespread symptoms or even death. It is not directly caused by the infectious agent—it can be spread through non-contagious contact with a host who has the pathogen.