Dhar Commission Indian Polity Notes for UPSC

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Dhar Commission, known as Linguistic Provinces Commission, was formed to suggest reorganizing states according to linguistics. It consisted of three members, namely, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya (Popularly known as JVP Committee). Here, we are providing detailed notes on Dhar Commission which is useful for the preparation in UPSC and other state PSCs.

Background of Dhar Commission

Historically, redrawing the boundaries of Indian states has been a long-standing demand since 1903 when Sir Herbert Risley, the Home Secretary in the Central Government, proposed the historic partition of Bengal. According to the authors of the Indian Constitutional Reforms report, provincial reorganisation was strongly desired for three primary reasons: first, provinces were artificial as they existed; second, if they were made smaller and homogenous in character, government business would become easier to conduct, and third, the linguistic provinces would be able to adopt regional languages for government transactions.

According to Mahatma Gandhi, the Congress Party should be organized linguistically by its provincial units. As a consequence, the Congress Party divided the existing provinces into linguistic groups for its organizational purposes in 1921, incorporating the linguistic principle into its own constitution.

According to the Nehru Report (1928), provinces should be formed based on linguistic affinities. According to this Report, redistribution of provinces is governed by a combination of geographic and economic factors, but two important factors are popular wish and linguistic unity.

In its 1930 report, the Simon Commission supported the concept of linguistic provinces with qualified support.

In 1937 and 1938, it renewed its pledge to recurve the provinces in the same way. Congress reiterated its promise of establishing linguistic provinces in its 1945 election manifesto.

Important Readings

Wavell Plan 1945 and Shimla ConferenceAmending Act of 1781Simon CommissionCabinet Mission Plan 1946
Cripps Mission Plan 1942Criticism of the Constituent AssemblyMountbatten Plan of June 1947Morley-Minto Reforms

Features of Dhar Commission

Under the chairmanship of S.K. Dhar, the Assembly established the Linguistic Provinces Commission in June 1948.

Congress appointed a Linguistic Providence Committee again in December 1948 at its Jaipur session. It consisted of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Pattabhi Sitaramayya (Popularly known as the JVP Committee) to examine the issue in light of past decisions of Congress as well as present requirements. The JVP Committee, however, is fundamentally concerned with the issue of national unity.

Four categories of state were envisaged when the Constitution came into force in 1950-Part A States (9), Part B States (8), Part C States (10), and Part D States (1). However, it was realised that this could not be a lasting arrangement because there was no consideration of cultural and linguistic homogeneity in their formation. Thus, rationalisation was needed.

When the S.K. Dhar Commission submitted its report in December 1948, it recommended that administrative convenience be the primary consideration in reorganising states, not the language of the people.

The Commission, rejected the linguistic basis of reorganization of States and recommended the reorganization of States on the basis of following criteria:

  1. Geographical contiguity
  2. Financial self-reliance
  3. Administrative viability
  4. Potential for development

Conclusion

In its opinion, the Dhar Commission believed that Andhra State would be a good idea. As a result, Telugu-speaking people were able to push for the establishment of a new state. In 1953, the Government was forced to create Andhra Pradesh as a result of all this.

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