Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Globalisation NCERT Notes

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Chapter 9 Globalisation Class 12 Political Science NCERT Notes can help you identify your weak areas so that you can focus your study time more efficiently. They are prepared by experienced teachers and professionals.

Globalisation Class 12 Contemporary World Politics Textbook Political Science NCERT notes are also an excellent source of information for students preparing for exams. The notes will cover all the important aspects of the topic, including the definition and key concepts.

Chapter 9 Globalisation Contemporary World Politics Class 12 Political Science CBSE NCERT Notes


This chapter focuses on globalisation and its various aspects. The political, economic, and cultural consequences of globalisation are discussed in detail, with a focus on its impact on India and how India is affecting globalisation.

The chapter also highlights the resistance to globalisation and the role of social movements in India as a part of this resistance.

The Concept of Globalisation

Globalisation as a concept fundamentally deals with flows. These flows could be of various kinds- ideas moving from one part of the world to another, capital shunted between two or more places, commodities being traded across borders, and people moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world.

Globalisation is a multi-dimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations.

Causes of Globalisation

While globalisation is not caused by any single factor, technology remains a critical element.

There is no doubt that the invention of the telegraph, the telephone, and the microchip in more recent times has revolutionised communication between different parts of the world. When printing initially came into being it laid the basis for the creation of nationalism.

The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances.

Globalization has led to increased interdependence between nations and a blurring of national boundaries.

Political Consequences

At the most basic level, globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, as governments shift from a welfare state to a more minimalist state that focuses on law and order and security.

Multinational companies and the market become the prime determinants of economic and social priorities, leading to a reduction in government decision-making capacity.

At the same time, globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of political community.

In some respects, state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available for the state to collect information about its citizens, making the state more powerful than before.

Economic Consequences

Economic globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries.

Economic globalisation has led to greater trade in commodities, reduced restrictions on imports, and movement of capital across countries.

The spread of internet and computer-related services is an example of the flow of ideas across national boundaries.

However, the movement of people across the globe has not increased to the same degree due to visa policies in developed countries.

Economic globalisation has created an intense division of opinion all over the world.

According to some, economic globalisation is likely to benefit only a small section of the population.

On the other hand advocates of economic globalisation argue that it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population.

Cultural Consequences

Globalisation has consequences that extend beyond politics and economy, and affect what we eat, drink, wear, and think.

Cultural homogenisation, which is the rise of a uniform culture, is a concern because it imposes Western culture on the rest of the world and threatens cultural diversity.

External influences can sometimes enlarge our choices and modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional.

While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect.

Cultural heterogenisation is a phenomenon of globalisation where each culture becomes more different and distinctive. Cultural exchange is rarely one way, but there remain differences in power when cultures interact.

India and Globalisation

During the colonial period, India became an exporter of primary goods and a consumer of finished goods due to Britain’s imperial ambitions.

After independence, India decided to make things ourselves and not rely on others by adopting protectionism policies.

The policy of protectionism generated their own problems and critical sectors such as health, housing, and primary education did not receive the attention they deserved. India had a fairly sluggish rate of economic growth.

In 1991, responding to a financial crisis and to the desire for higher rates of economic growth, India embarked on a programme of economic reforms that has sought increasingly to de-regulate various sectors including trade and foreign investment.

Resistance to Globalisation

Globalisation has invited strong criticism all over the globe. Critics on the left argue that contemporary globalisation makes the rich richer and the poor poorer, and weakens the state’s capacity to protect the interests of its poor.

Culturally, they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways.

It is important to note here that anti-globalisation movements too participate in global networks, allying with those who feel like them in other countries.

The World Social Forum (WSF) is a global platform bringing together human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalisation.

India and Resistance to Globalisation

India has experienced resistance to globalisation from different quarters, including left-wing protests to economic liberalisation voiced through political parties and forums like the Indian Social Forum.

Trade unions of industrial workforce as well as those representing farmer interests have organised protests against the entry of multinationals.

The patenting of certain plants like Neem by American and European firms has generated considerable opposition in India.

Resistance to globalisation has also come from the political right, particularly objecting to various cultural influences such as the availability of foreign TV channels, celebration of Valentine’s Day, and westernisation of the dress tastes of girl students in schools and colleges.

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