Class 10 Science Sustainable Management of Natural Resources NCERT Notes

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The purpose of Class 10 Science Sustainable Management of Natural Resources NCERT Notes is to provide you with concise, step-by-step important points that will help clarify complex concepts. These Notes are arranged in simplest language which will help you in studying better.

Reviewing Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Science NCERT notes before examinations will be helpful since you will remember the key points learned during a certain session.

Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Science CBSE NCERT Notes

Anything in the environment ‘which can be used’ is called natural resource. For example, soil, air, water, forests, wildlife, coal and petroleum.

Over-exploitation of natural resources causes several environmental problems. There are a number of laws at national and international level to safeguard our environment.

Controlling system for the use of natural resources in such a way as to avoid their wastage and to use them in the most effective way is called management of natural resources.

Ganga Action Plan was introduced in 1985 to improve the poor water quality of Ganga River. Contamination of river water is indicated by:

  • The presence of coliform (a group of bacteria found in human intestine) whose presence indicate contamination by disease causing bacteria.
  • The pH of water that can be easily checked by using universal indicator.

Management of Natural Resources

5R’s to save the environment

Refuse: This means to say No to things people offer you that you don’t need. for example, say No to single-use plastic carry bags.

Reduce: This means that you use less. You save electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans.

Reuse: Simply use things again and again. Instead of throwing away used envelopes, you can reverse it and use it again.

Repurpose: This means when a product can no more be used for the original purpose, think carefully and use it for some other useful purpose. For example, cracked crockery, or cups with broken handles can be used to grow small plants and as feeding vessels for birds.

Recycle: This means that you collect plastic, paper, glass and metal items and recycle these materials to make required things instead of synthesising or extracting fresh plastic, paper, glass or metal.

Why do we need to manage our Resources?

Management of resource wisely so that they meet current basic human needs while preserving them for the needs of future generations. The management of natural resources require:

  • Long term perspective so that these will last for generations to come.
  • Ensure equitable distribution of resources so that all economic sections benefit from these resources.
  • Safe disposal of waste.

Forests are vast areas, located far away from human inhabitation where wild plants of various kinds grow and animals of different varieties live without the intervention of humans. Forests are “biodiversity hot spots”.

A person with an interest or concern in something is called a stakeholder. To consider the conservation of forests, we need to look at the stakeholders who are:

  • The people who live in or around forests, are dependent on forest products for various aspects of their life.
  • The Forest Department of the Government which owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
  • The industrialists from those who use `tendu’ leaves to make bidis to the ones with paper mills who use various forest produce.
  • The wild life and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

A major programme called silviculture has been started to replenish the forests by growing more trees and plants.

Instances where various people has played an important role in conservation of forests

Khejri Trees : Amrita Devi Bishnoi, in 1731, sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of Khejri trees in a village in Rajasthan. Govt. of India instituted ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi’ National award for wildlife conservation in her memory.

Chipko Andolan : This movement originated in a remote village in Garhwal. Women of the village reached the forest when contractor’s men came to cut the trees. Women clasped the tree trunk thus preventing the workers from felling the trees. The Chipko Movement quickly spread across communities and forced govt. to rethink their priorities in the use of forest products.

West Bengal Forest Department revived the degraded SAL forest of Arabari.

Water for all

Water is the basic necessity for all terrestrial forms of life. Rain is an important source of water.

Irrigation methods like dams, tanks and canals have been used in various parts of India.


Dams ensure the storage of adequate water for irrigation and are also used for generating electricity. Various dams have been built on rivers to regulate the flow of water. For example,

  • Tehri Dam – On river Ganga
  • Sardar Sarovar Dam – On river Narmada
  • Bhakra Nangal Dam – On river Satluj

Interesting facts

  • Hirakud Dam built across Narmada river is the longest man-made dam in the world – 26 km in length.
  • Tehri Dam is Asia’s highest dam – 261 m high.
  • Bhakra Nangal Dam is Asia’s second highest dam at 225.5 m.

Advantages of Dams

  • Ensures adequate water for irrigation.
  • To generate electricity.
  • Continuous supply of water to cities and towns.

Disadvantages of Dams

Social problems: Many tribals and peasants are displaced and rendered homeless. They do not get adequate compensation or rehabilitation.

Environmental problems: Deforestation, loss of biodiversity, disturb ecological balance

Economic problems: Huge amount of public money is used. No proportionate benefit to people. No equitable distribution of water.

Rain Water Harvesting

Rain water harvesting is to make rain water percolate under the ground so as to recharge ‘groundwater’. Rain water harvesting is an age old practice in India.

Various ancient methods of water harvesting

Khadin, tanks, nadisRajasthan
Bandharas, talsMaharashtra
BundhisMadhya Pradesh, UP
Pynes, aharsBihar
KulhsHimachal Pradesh
PondsJammu region
Eris (tanks)Tamil Nadu

Advantages of storing water in the ground

  • It does not evaporate.
  • It spreads out to recharge wells.
  • It provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area.
  • It does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
  • It is protected from contamination by human and animal waste.

Coal and Petroleum

Coal and Petroleum are non-renewable natural resources. Coal and Petroleum are called Fossil Fuels. Coal and petroleum will exhaust very soon.

Formation of Coal

Coal was formed from the remains of trees buried deep inside the earth some 300 million years ago.

Formation of Petroleum

Petroleum is formed by the bacterial decomposition of dead marine plants and animals (buried at the bottom of the seas). This decomposition takes place under high pressure and temperature and formation of petroleum take millions of years of time.

Harmful effects of using fossil fuels

Air pollution

Combustion of coal and hydrocarbons release a large amount of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen etc. which cause air pollution.

This polluted air causes various diseases like respiratory and throat problems, congestion etc.

Global Warming Excessive emission of green house gases like carbondioxide cause a rise in atmospheric temperature leading to global warming.

Fossil fuels should be used judiciously:

  • Because they are limited and exhaustible.
  • Once exhausted they will not be available in near future because they are formed very slowly over a period of many years.

Steps taken to conserve energy resources (like coal and petroleum):

  • Switch off electric appliances when not in use.
  • Use electric appliances that are energy efficient like CFL at home.
  • Use public transport like bus or metro instead of private vehicles.
  • Use stairs to climb instead of lift.
  • Whenever possible, use solar cookers.
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