Geography| Physical and Indian Geography
The subject matter of geography is the study of the earth, its features and phenomena. Geography is the combination of two Greek words. ‘Geo’ means earth and ‘graphy’ means write. Thus, Geo + Graphy literally means ‘to write about the Earth.’ Greek Scholar Eratosthenes is first man to discuss about Geography.
It tried to uncover the secrets about the formation of universe, solar system, planets through its theory. It study the origin and development of various types of landscapes and its natural environment. It also the study the various global and local changes happening over period.
We can can divided geography into two parts, Physical Geography and Indian Geography.
Physical Geography study the processes that make the surface of the earth the way today it is. It study the climate, landscapes and the activity happening in four spheres; the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere of the earth. The physical geography is divided into different branches suchas Geomorphology, Hydrology, Glaciology, Oceanography, Climatology, Pedology, Biogeography, Paleogeography.
In Indian Geography part, we will study the physiography of India. We will start with the geological structure of a country which will provide a basic idea about the characteristics of rocks, soils and minerals. Geologically, the subcontinent of India was a part of the Gondwanaland (the Southern Continent). The peninsular part of India is oldest landmass since the formation of the Earth’s crust while the Himalayan and mountain chains around it are young landscapes. The northern plains lying below the mountain chains provide suitable conditions for agriculture. We will also study the river system, climate, natural vegetation and wildlife of India.